• 1.

    Johnson LR, Clarke HE, Bannasch MJ, et al. Correlation of rhinoscopic signs of inflammation with histologic findings in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:395400.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Johnson LR, Foley JE, De Cock HE, et al. Assessment of infectious organisms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:579585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Johnson LR, Maggs DJ. Feline herpesvirus type-1 transcription is associated with increased nasal cytokine gene transcription in cats. Vet Microbiol 2005;108:225233.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Norsworthy GD. Surgical treatment of chronic nasal discharge in 17 cats. Vet Med (Praha) 1993;88:526537.

  • 5.

    Cape L. Feline idiopathic chronic rhinosinusitis: a retrospective study of 30 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1992;28:149155.

  • 6.

    Michiels L, Day MJ, Snaps F, et al. A retrospective study of non-specific rhinitis in 22 cats and the value of nasal cytology and histopathology. J Feline Med Surg 2003;5:279285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Henderson SM, Bradley K, Day MJ, et al. Investigation of nasal disease in the cat—a retrospective study of 77 cases. J Feline Med Surg 2004;6:245257.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Demko JL, Cohn LA. Chronic nasal discharge in cats: 75 cases (1993–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2007;230:10321037.

  • 9.

    Veir JK, Lappin MR, Dow SW. Evaluation of a novel immunotherapy for treatment of chronic rhinitis in cats. J Feline Med Surg 2006;8:400411.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Pappalardo BL, Brown T, Gookin JL, et al. Granulomatous disease associated with Bartonella infection in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med 2000;14:3742.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Henn JB, Liu CH, Kasten RW, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Bartonella species and evaluation of risk factors and clinical signs associated with seropositivity in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2005;66:688694.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Windsor RC, Johnson LR, Sykes JE, et al. Molecular detection of microbes in nasal tissue of dogs with idiopathic lymphoplasmacytic rhinitis. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:250256.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Boulouis HJ, Chang CC, Henn JB, et al. Factors associated with the rapid emergence of zoonotic Bartonella infections. Vet Res 2005;36:383410.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Chomel BB, Boulouis HJ, Maruyama S, et al. Bartonella spp. in pets and effect on human health. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:389394.

  • 15.

    Kordick DL, Brown TT, Shin K, et al. Clinical and pathologic evaluation of chronic Bartonella henselae or Bartonella clarridgeiae infection in cats. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:15361547.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Quimby JM, Elston T, Hawley J, et al. Evaluation of the association of Bartonella species, feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, feline leukemia virus and feline immunodeficiency virus with chronic feline gingivostomatitis. J Feline Med Surg 2008;10:6672.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Mikolajczyk MG, O'Reilly KL. Clinical disease in kittens inoculated with a pathogenic strain of Bartonella henselae. Am J Vet Res 2000;61:375379.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Chomel BB, Wey AC, Kasten RW, et al. Fatal case of endocarditis associated with Bartonella henselae type I infection in a domestic cat. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:53375339.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Malik R, Barrs VR, Church DB, et al. Vegetative endocarditis in six cats. J Feline Med Surg 1999;1:171180.

  • 20.

    Lappin MR, Black JS. Bartonella spp infection as a possible cause of uveitis in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:12051207.

  • 21.

    Lappin MR, Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB. Bartonella spp. antibodies and DNA in aqueous humour of cats. J Feline Med Surg 2000;2:6168.

  • 22.

    Pearce LK, Radecki SV, Brewer M, et al. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae antibodies in serum of cats with and without clinical signs of central nervous system disease. J Feline Med Surg 2006;8:315320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Chomel BB, Kasten RW, Floyd-Hawkins K, et al. Experimental transmission of Bartonella henselae by the cat flea. J Clin Microbiol 1996;34:19521956.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Foil L, Andress E, Freeland RL, et al. Experimental infection of domestic cats with Bartonella henselae by inoculation of Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) feces. J Med Entomol 1998;35:625628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Gurfield AN, Boulouis HJ, Chomel BB, et al. Co-infection with Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and with different Bartonella henselae strains in domestic cats. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:21202123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Maruyama S, Nakamura Y, Kabeya H, et al. Prevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae and the 16S rRNA gene types of Bartonella henselae among pet cats in Japan. J Vet Med Sci 2000;62:273279.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Norman AF, Regnery R, Jameson P, et al. Differentiation of Bartonella-like isolates at the species level by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism in the citrate synthase gene. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:17971803.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Gurfield AN, Boulouis HJ, Chomel BB, et al. Epidemiology of Bartonella infection in domestic cats in France. Vet Microbiol 2001;80:185198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Gillespie TN, Washabau RJ, Goldschmidt MH, et al. Detection of Bartonella henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae DNA in hepatic specimens from two dogs with hepatic disease. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:4751.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Kitchell BE, Fan TM, Kordick D, et al. Peliosis hepatitis in a dog infected with Bartonella henselae. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:519523.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    MacDonald KA, Chomel BB, Kittleson MD, et al. A prospective study of canine infectious endocarditis in Northern California (1999–2001): emergence of Bartonella as a prevalent etiologic agent. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:5664.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Guptill L, Wu CC, HogenEsch H, et al. Prevalence, risk factors, and genetic diversity, of Bartonella henselae infections in pet cats in four regions of the United States. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:652659.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Powell CC, Kordick DL, Lappin MR. Inoculation with Bartonella henselae followed by feline herpesvirus 1 fails to activate ocular toxoplasmosis in chronically infected cats. J Feline Med Surg 2002;4:107110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Jensen WA, Fall MZ, Rooney J, et al. Rapid identification and differentiation of Bartonella species using a single-step PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 2000;38:17171722.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Honadel TE, Chomel BB, Yamamoto K, et al. Seroepidemiology of Bartonella vinsonii subsp berkhoffii exposure among healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:480484.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Kordick DL, Breitschwerdt EB. Relapsing bacteremia after blood transmission of Bartonella henselae to cats. Am J Vet Res 1997;58:492497.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Brunt J, Guptill L, Kordick DL, et al. American association of feline practitioners 2006 panel report on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Bartonella spp. infections. J Feline Med Surg 2006;8:213226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Nutter FB, Dubey JP, Levine JF, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies against Bartonella henselae and Toxoplasma gondii and fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium spp, Giardia spp, and Toxocara cati in feral and pet domestic cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:13941398.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Microbial culture of blood samples and serologic testing for bartonellosis in cats with chronic rhinosinusitis

Nicolas A. Berryessa DVM1, Lynelle R. Johnson DVM, PhD, DACVIM2, Rick W. Kasten PhD3, and Bruno B. Chomel DVM, PhD4
View More View Less
  • 1 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital and Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Population Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the role of Bartonella spp in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by determining detection rates for the organism by serologic testing and microbial culture of blood samples for Bartonella spp in cats with CRS and control cats (cats with other nasal diseases, cats with systemic illnesses, and healthy cats).

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—19 cats with CRS, 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 15 cats with systemic illness, and 15 healthy cats.

Procedures—Serologic testing for Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and microbial culture of blood samples were conducted in all cats. In cats with CRS and cats with other nasal diseases, a nasal biopsy specimen was submitted, when available, for tissue PCR assay to detect Bartonella spp.

Results—9 of 19 cats with CRS had positive results for serologic testing for 1 or both Bartonella spp; whereas, 4 of 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 2 of 15 cats with systemic diseases, and 4 of 15 healthy cats had positive results for serologic testing to detect Bartonella spp. These values did not differ significantly among groups. Microbial culture of blood samples yielded B henselae in 1 cat with a nasopharyngeal abscess. The PCR assay for Bartonella spp in nasal tissues yielded negative results for 9 of 9 cats with CRS and 5 of 5 cats with other nasal diseases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A role for Bartonella spp in the pathogenesis of CRS in cats was not supported by results of this study.

Abstract

Objective—To assess the role of Bartonella spp in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) by determining detection rates for the organism by serologic testing and microbial culture of blood samples for Bartonella spp in cats with CRS and control cats (cats with other nasal diseases, cats with systemic illnesses, and healthy cats).

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—19 cats with CRS, 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 15 cats with systemic illness, and 15 healthy cats.

Procedures—Serologic testing for Bartonella clarridgeiae and Bartonella henselae and microbial culture of blood samples were conducted in all cats. In cats with CRS and cats with other nasal diseases, a nasal biopsy specimen was submitted, when available, for tissue PCR assay to detect Bartonella spp.

Results—9 of 19 cats with CRS had positive results for serologic testing for 1 or both Bartonella spp; whereas, 4 of 10 cats with other nasal diseases, 2 of 15 cats with systemic diseases, and 4 of 15 healthy cats had positive results for serologic testing to detect Bartonella spp. These values did not differ significantly among groups. Microbial culture of blood samples yielded B henselae in 1 cat with a nasopharyngeal abscess. The PCR assay for Bartonella spp in nasal tissues yielded negative results for 9 of 9 cats with CRS and 5 of 5 cats with other nasal diseases.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A role for Bartonella spp in the pathogenesis of CRS in cats was not supported by results of this study.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Berryessa's present address is Georgia Veterinary Specialists, 455 Abernathy Rd NE, Atlanta, GA 30328.

Supported by a grant (05-56-R) from the Center for Companion Animal Health at the University of California, Davis, and by the Bailey Wrigley Fund.

Presented in part at the 25th Annual Forum of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine, Seattle, June 2007.

The authors thank Dr. Phil Kass for statistical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Berryessa.