• 1.

    Koch R. The aetiology of anthrax based on the ontogeny of the anthrax bacillus. Med Classics 1937;2:787820 Originally published, in German, in: Beitrage zur Biologie der Pflanzen 1877;2:277282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Sterne M. The effects of different carbon dioxide concentrations on the growth of virulent anthrax strains. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Ind 1937;9:4967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Sterne M. The use of anthrax vaccines prepared from avirulent (unencapsulated) variants of Bacillus anthracis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 1939;12:307312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Quinn C, Turnbull P. Anthrax. In: Hausler WJ, Sussman M, eds. Topley and Wilson's microbiology and microbial infection. 9th ed. London: Edward Arnold, 1998;799818.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Green BD, Battisti L, Koehler TM, et al. Demonstration of a capsule plasmid in Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun 1985;49:291297.

  • 6.

    McCloy E. Studies on a lysogenic Bacillus strain. I. A bacteriophage specific for Bacillus anthracis. J Hyg (Lond) 1951;49:114125.

  • 7.

    Manchee RJ, Broster MG, Melling J, et al. Bacillus anthracis on Gruinard Island. Nature 1981;294:254255.

  • 8.

    De Vos V. The ecology of anthrax in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Salisbury Med Suppl 1990;68(suppl):1923.

  • 9.

    Titball RW, Manchee RJ. Factors affecting the germination of spores of Bacillus anthracis. J Appl Bacteriol 1987;62:269273.

  • 10.

    Leppla S. The bifactorial Bacillus anthracis lethal and oedema toxins. In: Alouf JE, Freer JH, eds. The comprehensive sourcebook of bacterial protein toxins. 2nd ed. London: Academic Press, 1999;243263.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Weiner MA, Dixon TC. Bacillus anthracis. In: Gyles CL, Prescott JF, Songer JGet al, eds. Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. 3rd ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2004;5767.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Singh Y, Klimpel KR, Goel S, et al. Oligomerization of anthrax toxin protective antigen and binding of lethal factor during endocytic uptake into mammalian cells. Infect Immun 1999;67:18531859.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Moayeri M, Leppla SH. The roles of anthrax toxin in pathogenesis. Curr Opin Microbiol 2004;7:1924.

  • 14.

    Smith H, Keppie J. Observations on experimental anthrax: demonstration of a specific lethal factor produced in vivo by Bacillus anthracis. Nature 1954;173:869870.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Stanley JL, Smith H. Purification of factor I and recognition of a third factor of the anthrax toxin. J Gen Microbiol 1961;26:4966.

  • 16.

    Tippetts MT, Robertson DL. Molecular cloning and expression of the Bacillus anthracis edema factor toxin gene: a calmodulindependent adenylate cyclase. J Bacteriol 1988;170:22632266.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hoover DL, Friedlander AM, Rogers LC, et al. Anthrax edema toxin differentially regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced monocyte production of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-6 by increasing intracellular cyclic AMP. Infect Immun 1994;62:44324439.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Leppla SH. Bacillus anthracis calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase: chemical and enzymatic properties and interactions with eucaryotic cells. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphorylation Res 1984;17:189198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    O'Brien J, Friedlander A, Dreier T, et al. Effects of anthrax toxin components on human neutrophils. Infect Immun 1985;47:306310.

  • 20.

    Moayeri M, Haines D, Young H, et al. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice. J Clin Invest 2003;112:670682.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Beall FA, Taylor MJ, Thorne CB. Rapid lethal effect in rats of a third component found upon fractionating the toxin of Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol 1962;83:12741280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Vick JA, Lincoln RE, Klein F, et al. Neurological and physiological responses of the primate to anthrax toxin. J Infect Dis 1968;118:8596.

  • 23.

    Fish DC, Lincoln RE. In vivo-produced anthrax toxin. J Bacteriol 1968;95:919924.

  • 24.

    Dang O, Navarro L, Anderson K, et al. Cutting edge: anthrax lethal toxin inhibits activation of IFN-regulatory factor 3 by lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 2004;172:747751.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Duesbery NS, Webb CP, Leppla SH, et al. Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor. Science 1998;280:734737.

  • 26.

    Park JM, Greten FR, Li ZW, et al. Macrophage apoptosis by anthrax lethal factor through p38 MAP kinase inhibition. Science 2002;297:20482051.

  • 27.

    Friedlander AM. Macrophages are sensitive to anthrax lethal toxin through an acid-dependent process. J Biol Chem 1986;261:71237126.

  • 28.

    Hanna PC, Kruskal BA, Ezekowitz RA, et al. Role of macrophage oxidative burst in the action of anthrax lethal toxin. Mol Med 1994;1:718.

  • 29.

    Ribot WJ, Panchal RG, Brittingham KC, et al. Anthrax lethal toxin impairs innate immune functions of alveolar macrophages and facilitates Bacillus anthracis survival. Infect Immun 2006;74:50295034.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Dixon TC, Fadl AA, Koehler TM, et al. Early Bacillus anthracis macrophage interactions: intracellular survival and escape. Cell Microbiol 2000;2:453463.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Fang H, Xu L, Chen YT, et al. Anthrax lethal toxin has direct and potent inhibitory effects on B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. J Immunol 2006;176:61556161.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Comer JE, Chopra AK, Peterson JW, et al. Direct inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation by anthrax toxins in vivo. Infect Immun 2005;73:82758281.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Paccani SR, Tonello F, Ghittoni R, et al. Anthrax toxins suppress T lymphocyte activation by disrupting antigen receptor signaling. J Exp Med 2005;201:325331.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Kang TJ, Fenton MJ, Weiner MA, et al. Murine macrophages kill the vegetative form of Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun 2005;73:74957501.

  • 35.

    Van Ness GB. Ecology of anthrax. Science 1971;172:13031307.

  • 36.

    Dragon DC, Rennie RP. The ecology of anthrax spores: tough but not invincible. Can Vet J 1995;36:295301.

  • 37.

    Gates C, Elkin B, Dragon D. Investigation, control and epizootology of anthrax in a geographically isolated, free-roaming bison population in northern Canada. Can J Vet Res 1995;59:256264.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Dragon DC, Bader DE, Mitchell J, et al. Natural dissemination of Bacillus anthracis spores in northern Canada. Appl Environ Microbiol 2005;71:16101615.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Hugh-Jones M, de Vos V. Anthrax and wildlife. Rev Sci Tech 2002;21:359383.

  • 40.

    Stein CD. Some observations on the tenacity of Bacillus anthracis. Vet Med 1947;42:1322.

  • 41.

    Hugh-Jones ME, Hussaini SN. An anthrax outbreak in Berkshire. Vet Rec 1974;94:228232.

  • 42.

    Titball RW, Turnbull PC, Hutson RA. The monitoring and detection of Bacillus anthracis in the environment. Soc Appl Bacteriol Symp Ser 1991;20:9S18S.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Stein CD. Anthrax. In: Hull T, ed. Diseases transmitted from animals to man. Springfield, Ill: Charles C. Thomas, 1963;82125.

  • 44.

    Pienaar UdV, et al. Epidemiology of anthrax in wild animals and the control of anthrax epizootics in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Fed Proc 1967;26:14961501.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Turell MJ, Knudson GB. Mechanical transmission of Bacillus anthracis by stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes taeniorhynchus). Infect Immun 1987;55:18591861.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Turnbull P, Bohm R, Cosovi O, et al. Guidelines for the surveillance and control of anthrax in humans and animals. 3rd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, Department of Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Response, 1998.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Hugh-Jones M. 1996–97 global anthrax report. J Appl Microbiol 1999;87:189191.

  • 48.

    Clegg SB, Turnbull PC, Foggin CM, et al. Massive outbreak of anthrax in wildlife in the Malilangwe Wildlife Reserve, Zimbabwe. Vet Rec 2007;160:113118.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    World Health Organization Collaborating Center for Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Public Health world anthrax data site. Baton Rouge, La: Department of Pathobiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, 2003. Available at: www.vetmed.lsu.edu/whocc/mp_world.htm. Accessed Aug 20, 2007.

  • 50.

    ProMED-mail. PRO/AH/EDR Anthrax, bovine—USA (ND). ProMED-mail 2006; 26 Jun: 200606261775. Available at: www.promedmail.org. Accessed Aug 20, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Brachman PS, Kaufmann AF, Dalldorf FG. Industrial inhalation anthrax. Bacteriol Rev 1966;30:646659.

  • 52.

    Pile JC, Malone JD, Eitzen EM, et al. Anthrax as a potential biological warfare agent. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:429434.

  • 53.

    CDC. Human anthrax associated with an epizootic among livestock—North Dakota, 2000. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001;50:677680.

  • 54.

    Bales ME, Dannenberg AL, Brachman PS, et al. Epidemiologic response to anthrax outbreaks: field investigations, 1950–2001. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:11631174.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Peck RN, Fitzgerald DW. Cutaneous anthrax in the Artibonite Valley of Haiti: 1992–2002. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2007;77:806811.

  • 56.

    Maguina C, Del Pozo J, Terashima A, et al. Cutaneous anthrax in Lima: retrospective analysis of 71 cases, including four with a meningoencephalic complication. Rev Inst Med Trop S Paulo 2005;47:2530.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in the United States: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep 2000;49:120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    CDC. Inhalation anthrax associated with dried animal hides— Pennsylvania and New York City, 2006. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2006;55:280282.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    CDC. Cutaneous anthrax acquired from imported Haitian drums—Florida. MMWR 1974;23:142, 147.

  • 60.

    Editorial team. Probable human anthrax death in Scotland. Eurosurveillance [serial online] 2006;11(33):pii=3025. Available at: www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=3025. Accessed Aug 20, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Brachman PS. Inhalation anthrax. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1980;353:8393.

  • 62.

    Suffin SC, Carnes WH, Kaufmann AF. Inhalation anthrax in a home craftsman. Hum Pathol 1978;9:594597.

  • 63.

    Severn M. A fatal case of pulmonary anthrax. BMJ 1976;1:748.

  • 64.

    Rusnak JM, Kortepeter MG, Hawley RJ, et al. Risk of occupationally acquired illnesses from biological threat agents in unvaccinated laboratory workers. Biosecur Bioterror 2004;2:281293.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    CDC. Update: cutaneous anthrax in a laboratory worker–Texas, 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:482.

  • 66.

    Wilson T, Logan-Henfrey L, Weller R, et al. Agroterrorism, biological crimes, and biological warfare targeting animal agriculture. In: Brown C, Bolin C, eds. Emerging diseases of animals. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2000;2357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Noah DL, Noah DL, Crowder HR. Biological terrorism against animals and humans: a brief review and primer for action. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:4043.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Inglesby TV, O'Toole T, Henderson DA, et al. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management. JAMA 2002;287:22362252.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Jernigan DB, Raghunathan PL, Bell BP, et al. Investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax, United States, 2001: epidemiologic findings. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:10191028.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Watson A, Keir D. Information on which to base assessments of risk from environments contaminated with anthrax spores. Epidemiol Infect 1994;113:479490.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Fox MD, Kaufmann AF, Zendel SA, et al. Anthrax in Louisiana, 1971: epizootological study. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1973;163:446451.

  • 72.

    Fox MD, Boyce JM, Kaufmann AF, et al. An epizootiologic study of anthrax in Falls County, Texas. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1977;170:327333.

  • 73.

    Gleiser CA. Pathology of anthrax infection in animal hosts. Fed Proc 1967;26:15181521.

  • 74.

    Dixon TC, Meselson M, Guillemin J, et al. Anthrax. N Engl J Med 1999;341:815826.

  • 75.

    Woods CW, Ospanov K, Myrzabekov A, et al. Risk factors for human anthrax among contacts of anthrax-infected livestock in Kazakhstan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2004;71:4852.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Gold H. Anthrax; a report of one hundred seventeen cases. AMA Arch Intern Med 1955;96:387396.

  • 77.

    Freedman A, Afonja O, Chang MW, et al. Cutaneous anthrax associated with microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and coagulopathy in a 7-month-old infant. JAMA 2002;287:869874.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 78.

    Hahn BL, Sharma S, Sohnle PG. Analysis of epidermal entry in experimental cutaneous Bacillus anthracis infections in mice. J Lab Clin Med 2005;146:95102.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    Carucci JA, McGovern TW, Norton SA, et al. Cutaneous anthrax management algorithm. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002;47:766769.

  • 80.

    Wenner KA, Kenner JR. Anthrax. Dermatol Clin 2004;22:247256.

  • 81.

    Kaya A, Tasyaran M, Erol S, et al. Anthrax in adults and children: a review of 132 cases in Turkey. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2002;21:258261.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 82.

    Druett HA, Henderson DW, Packman L, et al. Studies on respiratory infection. I. The influence of particle size on respiratory infection with anthrax spores. J Hyg (Lond) 1953;51:359371.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 83.

    Ross J. The pathogenesis of anthrax following the administration of spores by the respiratory route. J Path Bact 1957;73:485494.

  • 84.

    Guidi-Rontani C, Weber-Levy M, Labruyere E, et al. Germination of Bacillus anthracis spores within alveolar macrophages. Mol Microbiol 1999;31:917.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 85.

    Abramova FA, Grinberg LM, Yampolskaya OV, et al. Pathology of inhalational anthrax in 42 cases from the Sverdlovsk outbreak of 1979. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993;90:22912294.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 86.

    Fritz DL, Jaax NK, Lawrence WB, et al. Pathology of experimental inhalation anthrax in the rhesus monkey. Lab Invest 1995;73:691702.

  • 87.

    Meselson M, Guillemin J, Hugh-Jones M, et al. The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science 1994;266:12021208.

  • 88.

    Henderson DW, Peacock S, Belton FC. Observations on the prophylaxis of experimental pulmonary anthrax in the monkey. J Hyg (Lond) 1956;54:2836.

  • 89.

    Gleiser CA, Berdhis CC, Hartman HA, et al. Pathology of experimental respiratory anthrax in Macaca mulatta. Br J Exp Pathol 1963;44:416426.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 90.

    Lyons CR, Lovchik J, Hutt J, et al. Murine model of pulmonary anthrax: kinetics of dissemination, histopathology, and mouse strain susceptibility. Infect Immun 2004;72:48014809.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 91.

    Friedlander AM, Welkos SL, Pitt ML, et al. Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalation anthrax. J Infect Dis 1993;167:12391243.

  • 92.

    Ndyabahinduka DG, Chu IH, Abdou AH, et al. An outbreak of human gastrointestinal anthrax. Ann Ist Super Sanita 1984;20:205208.

  • 93.

    Lakshmi N, Kumar AG. An epidemic of human anthrax—a study. Indian J Pathol Microbiol 1992;35:14.

  • 94.

    Sirisanthana T, Navachareon N, Tharavichitkul P, et al. Outbreak of oral-oropharyngeal anthrax: an unusual manifestation of human infection with Bacillus anthracis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1984;33:144150.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 95.

    Beatty ME, Ashford DA, Griffin PM, et al. Gastrointestinal anthrax: review of the literature. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:25272531.

  • 96.

    Kanafani ZA, Ghossain A, Sharara AI, et al. Endemic gastrointestinal anthrax in 1960s Lebanon: clinical manifestations and surgical findings. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:520525.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 97.

    Sirisanthana T, Brown AE. Anthrax of the gastrointestinal tract. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:649651.

  • 98.

    Lanska DJ. Anthrax meningoencephalitis. Neurology 2002;59:327334.

  • 99.

    Holty JE, Bravata DM, Liu H, et al. Systematic review: a century of inhalational anthrax cases from 1900 to 2005. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:270280.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 100.

    Mosier D, Chengappa M. Anthrax. In: Howard J, Smith R, eds. Current veterinary therapy 4: food animal practice. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1999;381383.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 101.

    Berg T, Suddes H, Morrice G, et al. Comparison of PCR, culture and microscopy of blood smears for the diagnosis of anthrax in sheep and cattle. Lett Appl Microbiol 2006;43:181186.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 102.

    Brown ER, Cherry WB. Specific identification of Bacillus anthracis by means of a variant bacteriophage. J Infect Dis 1955;96:3439.

  • 103.

    Hoffmaster AR, Meyer RF, Bowen MD, et al. Evaluation and validation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid identification of Bacillus anthracis. Emerg Infect Dis 2002;8:11781182.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 104.

    Makino SI, Iinuma-Okada Y, Maruyama T, et al. Direct detection of Bacillus anthracis DNA in animals by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1993;31:547551.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 105.

    Cheun HI, Makino SI, Watarai M, et al. Rapid and effective detection of anthrax spores in soil by PCR. J Appl Microbiol 2003;95:728733.

  • 106.

    Muller JD, Wilks CR, O'Riley KJ, et al. Specificity of an immunochromatographic test for anthrax. Aust Vet J 2004;82:220222.

  • 107.

    Bakici MZ, Elaldi N, Bakir M, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis in an endemic area. Scand J Infect Dis 2002;34:564566.

  • 108.

    Doganay M, Aydin N. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis. Scand J Infect Dis 1991;23:333335.

  • 109.

    Turnbull PC, Sirianni NM, LeBron CI, et al. MICs of selected antibiotics for Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus thuringiensis, and Bacillus mycoides from a range of clinical and environmental sources as determined by the Etest. J Clin Microbiol 2004;42:36263634.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 110.

    Luna VA, King DS, Gulledge J, et al. Susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus mycoides, Bacillus pseudomycoides and Bacillus thuringiensis to 24 antimicrobials using Sensititre(R) automated microbroth dilution and Etest(R) agar gradient diffusion methods. J Antimicrob Chemother 2007;60:555567.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 111.

    Cavallo JD, Ramisse F, Girardet M, et al. Antibiotic susceptibilities of 96 isolates of Bacillus anthracis isolated in France between 1994 and 2000. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:23072309.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 112.

    Lightfoot NF, Scott RJD, Turnbull PCB. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis. Salisbury Med Bull 1990;68(suppl):9598.

  • 113.

    Mohammed MJ, Marston CK, Popovic T, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Bacillus anthracis: comparison of results obtained by using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards broth microdilution reference and Etest agar gradient diffusion methods. J Clin Microbiol 2002;40:19021907.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 114.

    Chen Y, Succi J, Tenover FC, et al. B-lactamase genes of the penicillin-susceptible Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain. J Bacteriol 2003;185:823830.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 115.

    Bailey WW. Antibiotic therapy in anthrax. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1954;124:296300.

  • 116.

    Coker PR, Smith KL, Hugh-Jones ME. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of diverse Bacillus anthracis isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:38433845.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 117.

    Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Sixteenth Informational Supplement. CLSI document M100–S16. Wayne, Pa: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 118.

    Papich MG, Korsrud GO, Boison JO, et al. Disposition of penicillin G after administration of benzathine penicillin G, or a combination of benzathine penicillin G and procaine penicillin G in cattle. Am J Vet Res 1994;55:825830.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 119.

    Sullins KE, Messer NT, Nelson L. Serum concentration of penicillin in the horse after repeated intramuscular injections of procaine penicillin G alone or in combination with benzathine penicillin and/or phenylbutazone. Am J Vet Res 1984;45:10031007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 120.

    Lincoln RE, Klein F, Walker JS, et al. Successful treatment of rhesus monkeys for septicemic anthrax. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1964;10:759763.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 121.

    Gold H. Treatment of anthrax. Fed Proc 1967;26:15631568.

  • 122.

    Bailey WW. Anthrax; response to terramycin therapy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1953;122:305306.

  • 123.

    Langston C. Postexposure management and treatment of anthrax in dogs—executive councils of the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics and the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology. AAPS J 2005;7:E272E273.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 124.

    Manchee RJ, Broster MG, Stagg AJ, et al. Formaldehyde solution effectively inactivates spores of Bacillus anthracis on the Scottish island of Gruinard. Appl Environ Microbiol 1994;60:41674171.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 125.

    Nishi JS, Dragon DC, Elkin BT, et al. Emergency response planning for anthrax outbreaks in bison herds of northern Canada: a balance between policy and science. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;969:245250.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 126.

    Radostits O, Blood D, Gay C. Diseases caused by bacteria—I: diseases caused by Bacillus spp. In: Veterinary medicine. 8th ed. London: Bailliere Tindall, 1994;671676.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 127.

    Spotts Whitney EA, Beatty ME, Taylor THJ, et al. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:623627.

  • 128.

    CDC. Update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, October 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2001;50:909919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 129.

    Walsh JJ, Pesik N, Quinn CP, et al. A case of naturally acquired inhalation anthrax: clinical care and analyses of anti-protective antigen immunoglobulin G and lethal factor. Clin Infect Dis 2007;44:968971.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 130.

    Knudson GB. Treatment of anthrax in man: history and current concepts. Mil Med 1986;151:7177.

  • 131.

    Little SF, Ivins BE, Fellows PF, et al. Passive protection by polyclonal antibodies against Bacillus anthracis infection in guinea pigs. Infect Immun 1997;65:51715175.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 132.

    Kobiler D, Gozes Y, Rosenberg H, et al. Efficiency of protection of guinea pigs against infection with Bacillus anthracis spores by passive protection. Infect Immun 2002;70:544550.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 133.

    Kozel TR, Murphy WJ, Brandt S, et al. mAbs to Bacillus anthracis capsular antigen for immunoprotection in anthrax and detection of antigenemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2004;101:50425047.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 134.

    Chen Z, Moayeri M, Zhou YH, et al. Efficient neutralization of anthrax toxin by chimpanzee monoclonal antibodies against protective antigen. J Infect Dis 2006;193:625633.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 135.

    Subramanian GM, Cronin PW, Poley G, et al. A phase 1 study of PAmAb, a fully human monoclonal antibody against Bacillus anthracis protective antigen, in healthy volunteers. Clin Infect Dis 2005;41:1220.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 136.

    Grabenstein JD. Countering anthrax: vaccines and immunoglobulins. Clin Infect Dis 2008;46:129136.

  • 137.

    Wild MA, Xin H, Maruyama T, et al. Human antibodies from immunized donors are protective against anthrax toxin in vivo. Nat Biotechnol 2003;21:13051306.

  • 138.

    CDC. Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2002;51:10241026.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 139.

    CDC. Anthrax: exposure management/prophylaxis. Available at: emergency.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/exposure. Accessed Aug 20, 2007.

Advertisement

Anthrax

Sean V. Shadomy DVM, MPH1 and Theresa L. Smith MD, MPH2
View More View Less
  • 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333.
  • | 2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333.

Contributor Notes

The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The authors thank Elizabeth Bosserman for the statistical programming input and generation of the figure.

Address correspondence to Dr. Shadomy.