• 1.

    Shoemaker NJ, Schuurmans M, Moorman H, et al. Correlation between age at neutering and age at onset of hyperadrenocorticism in ferrets. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;216:195197.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Weiss CA, Scott MV. Clinical aspects and surgical treatment of hyperadrenocorticism in the domestic ferret: 94 cases (1994–1996). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997;33:487493.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Rosenthal KL. Adrenal gland disease in ferrets. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1997;27:401418.

  • 4.

    Coleman GD, Chavez MA, Williams BH. Cystic prostatic disease associated with adrenocortical lesions in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). Vet Pathol 1998;35:547549.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Rosenthal KL, Peterson ME. Evaluation of plasma androgen and estrogen concentrations in ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:10971102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Neuwirth L, Collins B, Calderwood-Mays M, et al. Adrenal gland ultrasonography correlated with histopathology in ferrets. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1997;38:6974.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Besso JG, Tidwell AS, Gliatto JM. Retrospective review of the ultrasonographic features of adrenal gland lesions in 21 ferrets. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2000;41:345352.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Johnson-Delaney CA. Medical therapies for ferret adrenal gland disease. Semin Avian Exot Pet Med 2004;13:37.

  • 9.

    Lawrence HJ, Gould WJ, Flanders JA, et al. Unilateral adrenalectomy as a treatment for adrenocortical tumors in ferrets: five cases (1990–1992). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:267270.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Johnson D. Clinical use of cryosurgery for ferret adrenal gland removal. Exotic DVM 2002;4:7173.

  • 11.

    Weiss CA, Williams BH, Scott JB, et al. Surgical treatment and long-term outcome of ferrets with bilateral adrenal gland tumors or adrenal gland hyperplasia: 56 cases (1994–1997). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:820823.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Quesenberry KE, Rosenthal KL. Endocrine diseases. In: Quesenberry KE, Carpenter JW, eds. Ferrets, rabbits and rodents: clinical medicine and surgery. St Louis: Saunders, 2004;7990.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Rosenthal KL, Peterson ME, Quesenberry KE, et al. Hyperadrenocorticism associated with adrenocortical tumor or nodular hyperplasia of the adrenal gland in ferrets: 50 cases (1987–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;203:271275.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Long-term outcome of domestic ferrets treated surgically for hyperadrenocorticism: 130 cases (1995–2004)

Jennifer K. Swiderski DVM1, Howard B. Seim III DVM, DACVS2, Catriona M. MacPhail DVM, PhD, DACVS3, Terry W. Campbell DVM, PhD4, Matthew S. Johnston VMD, DABVP5, and Eric Monnet DVM, PhD, DACVS6
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 6 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term survival rate and factors that affect survival time of domestic ferrets treated surgically for hyperadrenocorticism.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—130 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism that were treated surgically.

Procedures—Medical records of ferrets surgically treated for hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Data recorded included signalment, duration of clinical signs prior to hospital admission, CBC values, serum biochemical analysis results, anesthetic time, surgical time, concurrent diseases, adrenal gland affected (right, left, or both [bilateral]), histopathologic diagnosis, surgical procedure, caudal vena caval involvement (yes or no), postoperative melena (yes or no), days in hospital after surgery, and whether clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism developed after surgery.

Results—130 ferrets were entered in the study (11 of 130 ferrets were admitted and underwent surgery twice). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 98% and 88%, respectively. A 50% survival rate was never reached. Combined partial adrenal gland resection with cryosurgery had a significantly negative effect on survival time. No other risk factors were identified. Survival time was not significantly affected by either histopathologic diagnosis or specific affected adrenal gland (right, left, or bilateral).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ferrets with adrenal gland masses that were treated surgically had a good prognosis. Survival time of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism undergoing surgery was not affected by the histologic characteristic of the tumor, the adrenal glands affected (right, left, or bilateral), or complete versus partial adrenal gland resection. Debulking was a sufficient surgical technique to allow a favorable long-term outcome when complete excision was not possible.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term survival rate and factors that affect survival time of domestic ferrets treated surgically for hyperadrenocorticism.

Study Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—130 ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism that were treated surgically.

Procedures—Medical records of ferrets surgically treated for hyperadrenocorticism were reviewed. Data recorded included signalment, duration of clinical signs prior to hospital admission, CBC values, serum biochemical analysis results, anesthetic time, surgical time, concurrent diseases, adrenal gland affected (right, left, or both [bilateral]), histopathologic diagnosis, surgical procedure, caudal vena caval involvement (yes or no), postoperative melena (yes or no), days in hospital after surgery, and whether clinical signs of hyperadrenocorticism developed after surgery.

Results—130 ferrets were entered in the study (11 of 130 ferrets were admitted and underwent surgery twice). The 1- and 2-year survival rates were 98% and 88%, respectively. A 50% survival rate was never reached. Combined partial adrenal gland resection with cryosurgery had a significantly negative effect on survival time. No other risk factors were identified. Survival time was not significantly affected by either histopathologic diagnosis or specific affected adrenal gland (right, left, or bilateral).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ferrets with adrenal gland masses that were treated surgically had a good prognosis. Survival time of ferrets with hyperadrenocorticism undergoing surgery was not affected by the histologic characteristic of the tumor, the adrenal glands affected (right, left, or bilateral), or complete versus partial adrenal gland resection. Debulking was a sufficient surgical technique to allow a favorable long-term outcome when complete excision was not possible.

Contributor Notes

Presented as an abstract at the 16th Annual American College of Veterinary Surgeons Symposium, resident competition, Washington, DC, October 2006.

The authors thank Dr. Stacy Meola for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Monnet.