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Lomustine for treatment of mast cell tumors in cats: 38 cases (1999–2005)

Kenneth M. Rassnick DVM, DACVIM1, Laurel E. Williams DVM, DACVIM2, Orna Kristal DVM, DACVIM3, Renée Al-Sarraf DVM, DACVIM4, Jennifer L. Baez VMD, DACVIM5, Courtney H. Zwahlen DVM, DACVIM6, and Gillian Dank DVM, DACVIM7
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 3 Animal Cancer Specialists, 11536 Lake City Way NE, Seattle, WA 98125.
  • | 4 Animal Emergency and Referral Associates, 1237 Bloomfield Ave, Fairfield, NJ 07004.
  • | 5 Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 6 Veterinary Cancer Referral Group, 2965 Edinger Ave, Tustin, CA 92780.
  • | 7 Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, POB 12, Rehovot 76100, Israel.

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical activity and toxic effects of lomustine when used to treat cats with mast cell tumors (MCTs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—38 cats with measurable, histologically or cytologically confirmed MCTs treated with lomustine at a dosage ≥ 50 mg/m2.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to determine response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicoses. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate remission duration.

Results—26 cats had cutaneous MCTs, 7 had MCTs of the mesenteric lymph nodes, 2 had gastrointestinal tract MCTs, 2 had hepatic MCTs, and 1 had MCTs involving multiple organs. Targeted lomustine dosage was 50 mg/m2 in 22 cats and 60 mg/m2 in 16 cats. Median administered dosage of lomustine was 56 mg/m2 (range, 48 to 65 mg/m2), and median number of doses administered was 2 (range, 1 to 12). Seven cats had a complete response and 12 had a partial response, for an overall response rate of 50%. Median response duration was 168 days (range, 25 to 727 days). The most common toxicoses were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that lomustine had activity against MCTs in cats and was well tolerated. Further, findings suggested that treatment with lomustine should be considered for cats with MCTs for which local treatment is not an option.

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical activity and toxic effects of lomustine when used to treat cats with mast cell tumors (MCTs).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—38 cats with measurable, histologically or cytologically confirmed MCTs treated with lomustine at a dosage ≥ 50 mg/m2.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed to determine response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicoses. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate remission duration.

Results—26 cats had cutaneous MCTs, 7 had MCTs of the mesenteric lymph nodes, 2 had gastrointestinal tract MCTs, 2 had hepatic MCTs, and 1 had MCTs involving multiple organs. Targeted lomustine dosage was 50 mg/m2 in 22 cats and 60 mg/m2 in 16 cats. Median administered dosage of lomustine was 56 mg/m2 (range, 48 to 65 mg/m2), and median number of doses administered was 2 (range, 1 to 12). Seven cats had a complete response and 12 had a partial response, for an overall response rate of 50%. Median response duration was 168 days (range, 25 to 727 days). The most common toxicoses were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that lomustine had activity against MCTs in cats and was well tolerated. Further, findings suggested that treatment with lomustine should be considered for cats with MCTs for which local treatment is not an option.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Kristal's present address is Chavat Daat Veterinary Specialty Center, Bet Berl, Kfar Saba, 44905, Israel.

Dr. Baez's present address is Center for Animal Referral and Emergency Services, 2010 Cabot Blvd, Langhorne, PA 19047.

Dr. Zwahlen's present address is Southern California Veterinary Referral Group, 1371 Reynolds Ave, Irvine, CA 92614.

Presented in part at the 23rd Annual Conference of the Veterinary Cancer Society, Madison, Wis, September 2003.

Address correspondence to Dr. Rassnick.