• 1.

    Foley JE, Harrus S, Poland A, et al. Molecular, clinical, and pathologic comparison of two distinct strains of Haemobartonella felis in domestic cats. Am J Vet Res 1998;59:15811588.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Jensen WA, Lappin MR, Kamkar S, et al. Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and differentiate two strains of Haemobartonella felis in naturally infected cats. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:604608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Westfall DS, Jensen WA, Reagan WJ, et al. Inoculation of two genotypes of Hemobartonella felis (California and Ohio variants) to induce infection in cats and the response to treatment with azithromycin. Am J Vet Res 2001;62:687691.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    George JW, Rideout BA, Griffey SM, et al. Effect of preexisting FeLV infection or FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus coinfection on pathogenicity of the small variant of Haemobartonella felis in cats. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:11721178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Willi B, Boretti FS, Cattori V, et al. Identification, molecular characterization, and experimental transmission of a new hemoplasma isolate from a cat with hemolytic anemia in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:25812585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Willi B, Boretti FS, Baumgartner C, et al. Prevalence, risk factor analysis, and follow-up of infections caused by three feline hemoplasma species in Switzerland. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:961969.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Willi B, Tasker S, Boretti FS, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” isolates from pet cats in the United Kingdom, Australia, and South Africa, with analysis of risk factors for infection. J Clin Microbiol 2006;44:44304435.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Sykes JE, Drazenovich NL, Ball LM, et al. Use of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction to determine the epidemiology of hemoplasma infections in anemic and nonanemic cats. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:685693.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Tasker S, Helps CR, Day MJ, et al. Use of real-time PCR to detect and quantify Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ DNA. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:439441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Feline leukemia virus antigen/feline immunodeficiency virus antibody test kit [package insert]. Westbrook, Me: IDEXX Laboratories, 2005.

  • 11.

    Tasker S, Binns SH, Day MJ, et al. Use of a PCR assay to assess the prevalence and risk-factors for Mycoplasma haemofelis and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in cats in the United Kingdom. Vet Rec 2003;152:193198.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Tasker S, Braddock JA, Baral R, et al. Diagnosis of feline haemoplasma infection in Australian cats using a real-time PCR assay. J Feline Med Surg 2004;6:345354.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Luria BJ, Levy JK, Lappin MR, et al. Prevalence of infectious diseases in feral cats in Florida. J Feline Med Surg 2004;6:287296.

  • 14.

    Harrus S, Klement E, Aroch I, et al. Retrospective study of 46 cases of feline haemobartonellosis in Israel and their relationships with FeLV and FIV infection. Vet Rec 2002;151:8285.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Grindem CB, Corbett WT, Tomkins MT. Risk factors for Haemobartonella felis infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1990;196:9699.

  • 16.

    Hayes HM, Priester WA. Feline infectious anaemia. Risk by age, sex and breed; prior disease; seasonal occurrence; mortality. J Small Anim Pract 1973;14:797804.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Alleman AR, Pate MG, Harvey JW, et al. Western immunoblot analysis of the antigens of Haemobartonella felis with sera from experimentally infected cats. J Clin Microbiol 1999;37:14741479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Tasker S, Caney SM, Day MJ, et al. Effect of chronic FIV infection, and efficacy of marbofloxacin treatment, on Mycoplasma haemofelis infection. Vet Microbiol 2006;117:169179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the United States with possible hemoplasmosis

Jane E. Sykes BVSc, PhD, DACVIM1, Jeralyn C. Terry BS2, LeAnn L. Lindsay PhD3, and Sean D. Owens DVM, DACVP4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 IDEXX Laboratories Inc, 2825 KOVR Dr, Broderick, CA 95605.

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the United States with possible hemoplasmosis and identify risk factors for and clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with infection with each species.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—310 cats with cytologic evidence of hemoplasmosis (n = 9) or acute or regenerative anemia (309).

Procedures—Blood samples were tested by means of a broad-spectrum conventional PCR assay for hemoplasma DNA and by means of 3 separate species-specific real-time PCR assays for DNA from “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” (Mhm), Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), and “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” (Mtc).

Results—Overall prevalences of Mhm, Mhf, and Mtc infection were 23.2% (72/310), 4.8% (15/310), and 6.5% (20/310), respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 20 (6.5%) cats. Cats infected with hemoplasmas were more likely to be male than were uninfected cats. Infection with FeLV or FIV was significantly associated with infection with Mhf. Compared with uninfected cats, cats infected with Mhf had higher reticulocyte counts, nucleated RBC counts, and mean corpuscular volume; cats infected with Mhm had higher mean corpuscular volume; and cats infected with Mtc had higher monocyte counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported the suggestion that these 3 hemoplasma species commonly occur among cats in the United States and that pathogenicity of the 3 species varies.

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalences of various hemoplasma species among cats in the United States with possible hemoplasmosis and identify risk factors for and clinicopathologic abnormalities associated with infection with each species.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—310 cats with cytologic evidence of hemoplasmosis (n = 9) or acute or regenerative anemia (309).

Procedures—Blood samples were tested by means of a broad-spectrum conventional PCR assay for hemoplasma DNA and by means of 3 separate species-specific real-time PCR assays for DNA from “Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum” (Mhm), Mycoplasma haemofelis (Mhf), and “Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis” (Mtc).

Results—Overall prevalences of Mhm, Mhf, and Mtc infection were 23.2% (72/310), 4.8% (15/310), and 6.5% (20/310), respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 20 (6.5%) cats. Cats infected with hemoplasmas were more likely to be male than were uninfected cats. Infection with FeLV or FIV was significantly associated with infection with Mhf. Compared with uninfected cats, cats infected with Mhf had higher reticulocyte counts, nucleated RBC counts, and mean corpuscular volume; cats infected with Mhm had higher mean corpuscular volume; and cats infected with Mtc had higher monocyte counts.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results supported the suggestion that these 3 hemoplasma species commonly occur among cats in the United States and that pathogenicity of the 3 species varies.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Owens' present address is Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Supported in part by IDEXX Laboratories and a grant from the Students in Advanced Research (STAR) program.

Presented at the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Annual Forum, Seattle, June 2007.

The authors thank Nicole Drazenovich for technical assistance and Dr. Christian Leutenegger for assistance with real-time PCR assays.

Address correspondence to Dr. Sykes.