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Factors associated with vesicular stomatitis in animals in the western United States

Paulo C. Duarte DVM, MPVM, PhD1, Paul S. Morley DVM, PhD, DACVIM2, Josie L. Traub-Dargatz DVM, MS, DACVIM3, and Lynn H. Creekmore DVM, MS4
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  • 1 Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 2 Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 3 Animal Population Health Institute, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.
  • | 4 USDA, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Veterinary Services, Western Regional Office, Fort Collins, CO 80526.

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with development of vesicular stomatitis (VS).

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—138 livestock premises and 118 horses suspected of having VS in Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado.

Procedures—Premises with ≥ 1 animal with clinical signs and laboratory confirmation of infection were classified as case premises. Premises where laboratory confirmation results were negative were control premises. Among equine premises, case and control horses were selected on the basis of premises status. A survey was conducted to identify factors associated with VS for premises and specific horses.

Results—Control of insect populations in the 2 weeks before the VS investigation decreased the odds of disease for premises where vegetation coverage was grassland or pasture (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.7). Odds of VS for premises covered with grassland or pasture increased when measures to control insect populations were not used (OR, 11; 95% CI, 0.8 to 156.3) and for premises that had a body of water (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 5.6). Use of measures to prevent insect bites or harassment by insects (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8) and spending time in shelters (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.1) in the 2 weeks prior to investigation decreased the odds of being a case horse.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Insect control and spending time in shelters decreased the odds for infection with VS. Premises covered with grassland or pasture or that had a body of water were at a higher risk.

Abstract

Objective—To identify factors associated with development of vesicular stomatitis (VS).

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—138 livestock premises and 118 horses suspected of having VS in Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado.

Procedures—Premises with ≥ 1 animal with clinical signs and laboratory confirmation of infection were classified as case premises. Premises where laboratory confirmation results were negative were control premises. Among equine premises, case and control horses were selected on the basis of premises status. A survey was conducted to identify factors associated with VS for premises and specific horses.

Results—Control of insect populations in the 2 weeks before the VS investigation decreased the odds of disease for premises where vegetation coverage was grassland or pasture (odds ratio [OR], 0.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.7). Odds of VS for premises covered with grassland or pasture increased when measures to control insect populations were not used (OR, 11; 95% CI, 0.8 to 156.3) and for premises that had a body of water (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0 to 5.6). Use of measures to prevent insect bites or harassment by insects (OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.8) and spending time in shelters (OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2 to 1.1) in the 2 weeks prior to investigation decreased the odds of being a case horse.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Insect control and spending time in shelters decreased the odds for infection with VS. Premises covered with grassland or pasture or that had a body of water were at a higher risk.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Duarte's present address is International Livestock Research Institute, PO Box 30709-00100, Nairobi, Kenya.

Supported by the USDA (Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Services for the Colorado State University Program for Economically Important Animal Diseases).

The authors thank Mariana Neubauer, Sabina Seric, Rebecca L. Curran, Bethany L. Frank, Barbara A. Gray, Alison S. Hurwitch, Sarah M. Jensen, Dena D. Jones, Jennifer L. Kamm, Nancy Kinney, Augusta J. Kivi, Jan R. Linkenhoker, David N. Lori, Karly A. Macon, Amanda L. McGowan, Krista B. McKamey, Justina R. Pahl, Erin L. Pedersen, Rachel A. Pierce, Loni M. Queer, Heather A. Ratzlaff, Lizzie O. Sindeband, Natalee N. Takasumi, and Woodson C. Tucker for assistance with data collection; Melissa Schoenbaum for database development; and Drs. Angela Pelzel, Wayne Cunningham, Steve England, and John Romero for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Duarte.