Self-expanding nitinol stents for the treatment of tracheal collapse in dogs: 12 cases (2001–2004)

Patricia A. Sura Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4544.

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Delbert J. Krahwinkel Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4544.

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 DVM, MS, DACVS, DACVA, DACVECC

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate long-term outcome following nitinol stent placement in dogs with tracheal collapse.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 client-owned dogs with endoscopically diagnosed tracheal collapse refractory to medical management.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for 12 dogs in which 1 or more self-expanding nitinol stents were placed for the treatment of endoscopically diagnosed tracheal collapse. A total of 17 stents were placed.

Results—Survival times after stent placement ranged from 1 to 48 months. Three of 12 dogs died within 6 months after stent placement. Nine dogs survived > 1 year after stent placement, and 7 dogs survived > 2 years. Of the deceased dogs, 5 of 9 succumbed to tracheal disease. Other causes of death included congestive heart failure, cerebral neoplasia, cerebrovascular accident, and renal failure. Material failure (stent fracture) was a common complication (5/12 dogs). Other complications reported included excessive granulation tissue within the stent lumen, tracheitis, and pneumonia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of an intraluminal stent with self-expanding nitinol stents was a successful palliative treatment for tracheal collapse in dogs that did not respond to medical management. Disease progression is inevitable, but substantial improvement in respiratory function may be achieved for a period of months to years.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate long-term outcome following nitinol stent placement in dogs with tracheal collapse.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 client-owned dogs with endoscopically diagnosed tracheal collapse refractory to medical management.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for 12 dogs in which 1 or more self-expanding nitinol stents were placed for the treatment of endoscopically diagnosed tracheal collapse. A total of 17 stents were placed.

Results—Survival times after stent placement ranged from 1 to 48 months. Three of 12 dogs died within 6 months after stent placement. Nine dogs survived > 1 year after stent placement, and 7 dogs survived > 2 years. Of the deceased dogs, 5 of 9 succumbed to tracheal disease. Other causes of death included congestive heart failure, cerebral neoplasia, cerebrovascular accident, and renal failure. Material failure (stent fracture) was a common complication (5/12 dogs). Other complications reported included excessive granulation tissue within the stent lumen, tracheitis, and pneumonia.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Placement of an intraluminal stent with self-expanding nitinol stents was a successful palliative treatment for tracheal collapse in dogs that did not respond to medical management. Disease progression is inevitable, but substantial improvement in respiratory function may be achieved for a period of months to years.

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