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Computed tomographic appearance of masticatory myositis in dogs: 7 cases (1999–2006)

Alexander M. Reiter Dr med vet, DAVDC1 and Tobias Schwarz MA, Dr med vet, DACVR2
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104
  • | 2 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706

Abstract

Objective—To document computed tomography (CT) features in dogs with masticatory myositis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—7 dogs with an immunologic diagnosis of masticatory myositis and an absence of clinical abnormalities of any skeletal muscles other than the masticatory muscles.

Procedures—History; clinical, hematologic, biochemical, immunologic, cytologic, and histologic findings; and pre- and postcontrast CT imaging features of masticatory muscles and head and neck lymph nodes were extracted from medical records.

Results—On CT images, changes in size (atrophy or swelling) were common for all masticatory muscles except the digastricus muscles, which were involved only in 1 dog. Pre-contrast attenuation changes, most often hypoattenuation with varied distribution patterns, were seen in masticatory muscles of 4 dogs. Contrast enhancement with a predominantly inhomogeneous distribution pattern was seen in the temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles of all dogs. Head and neck lymph nodes were enlarged in all but 1 dog and had contrast enhancement with predominantly central or homogeneous distribution patterns. Muscle biopsy was performed in 6 dogs, with biopsy specimens obtained from areas that had the most obvious contrast enhancement on CT images. For all 6 dogs, biopsy speci-mens had histologic features indicative of masticatory myositis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CT may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of masticatory myositis in dogs, including selection of sites for diagnostic muscle biopsy.

Abstract

Objective—To document computed tomography (CT) features in dogs with masticatory myositis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—7 dogs with an immunologic diagnosis of masticatory myositis and an absence of clinical abnormalities of any skeletal muscles other than the masticatory muscles.

Procedures—History; clinical, hematologic, biochemical, immunologic, cytologic, and histologic findings; and pre- and postcontrast CT imaging features of masticatory muscles and head and neck lymph nodes were extracted from medical records.

Results—On CT images, changes in size (atrophy or swelling) were common for all masticatory muscles except the digastricus muscles, which were involved only in 1 dog. Pre-contrast attenuation changes, most often hypoattenuation with varied distribution patterns, were seen in masticatory muscles of 4 dogs. Contrast enhancement with a predominantly inhomogeneous distribution pattern was seen in the temporalis, masseter, and pterygoid muscles of all dogs. Head and neck lymph nodes were enlarged in all but 1 dog and had contrast enhancement with predominantly central or homogeneous distribution patterns. Muscle biopsy was performed in 6 dogs, with biopsy specimens obtained from areas that had the most obvious contrast enhancement on CT images. For all 6 dogs, biopsy speci-mens had histologic features indicative of masticatory myositis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that CT may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of masticatory myositis in dogs, including selection of sites for diagnostic muscle biopsy.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Reiter.