• 1.

    Hoerlein BF. Intervertebral disks. In: Hoerlein BF. Canine neurology: diagnosis and treatment. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1978;470560.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Davis GJ, Brown DC. Prognostic indicators for time to ambulation after surgical decompression in nonambulatory dogs with acute thoracolumbar disk extrusions: 112 cases. Vet Surg 2002;31:513518.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Coates JR. Intervertebral disk disease. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 2000;30:77110.

  • 4.

    Sharp NJH, Wheeler SJ. Thoracolumbar disc disease. In: Sharp NJH, Wheeler SJ. Small animal spinal disorders. Diagnosis and surgery. 2nd ed. London: Elsevier Mosby, 2005;121135.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Butterworth SJ, Denny HR. Follow-up study of 100 cases with thoracolumbar disc protusions treated by lateral fenestration. J Small Anim Pract 1991;32:443447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Yovich JC, Read R, Eger C. Modified lateral spinal decompression in 61 dogs with thoracolumbar disc protusion. J Small Anim Pract 1994;35:351356.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Janssens LA. Acupuncture treatment for canine thoracolumbar disk protusions. A review of 78 cases. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 1983;78:15801585.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Still J. Acupuncture treatment of thoracolumbar disc disease: a study of 35 cases. Companion Anim Pract 1988;2:1924.

  • 9.

    Hayashi AM, Matera JM. Princípios gerais e aplicações da acupuntura em pequenos animais: revisão de literatura. Rev Educ Continuada CRMV-SP 2005;8:109122.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Joseph R. Neurologic evaluation and its relation to acupuncture. Acupuncture for neurologic disorders. Probl Vet Med 1992;4:98106.

  • 11.

    Xie H, Colahan P, Ott E. Evaluation of electroacupuncture treatment of horses with signs of chronic thoracolumbar pain. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:281286.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Chrisman C, Mariani C & Platt S, et al. Paraparesia ou paraplegia aguda. In: Chrisman C, Mariani C & Platt S, et al. Neurologia para o clínico de pequenos animais. São Paulo, Brazil: Roca, 2005;267284.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Mastrocinque S, Fantoni DT. A comparison of preoperative tramadol and morphine for the control of early postoperative pain in canine ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anesth Analg 2003;30:220228.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Olby NJ, Levine J & Harris T, et al. Long-term functional outcome of dogs with severe injuries of the thoracolumbar spinal cord: 87 cases (1996–2001). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:762769.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Hwang YC. Anatomy and classification of acupoints. Probl Vet Med 1992;4:1215.

  • 16.

    Wynn SG, Marsden S. Appendix E. In: Wynn SG, Marsden S. Manual of natural veterinary medicine science and tradition. St Louis: Mosby, 2003;668705.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Hwang YC, Limehouse JB. Canine acupuncture atlas. In: Schoen AM, ed. Veterinary acupuncture: ancient art to modern medicine. St Louis: Mosby, 2001;127148.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ferreira AJA, Correia JHD, Jaggy A. Thoracolumbar disc disease in 71 paraplegic dogs: influence of rate of onset and duration of clinical signs on treatment results. J Small Anim Pract 2002;43:158163.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Padilha Filho JG, Selmi AL. Retrospective study of thoracolumbar ventral fenestration through intercostal thoracotomy and paracostal laparotomy in the dog. Brazilian J Vet Res Anim Sci 1999;36:223227.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Yang JW, Jeong SM & Seo KM, et al. Effects of corticosteroid and eletroacupuncture on experimental spinal cord injury in dogs. J Vet Sci 2003;4:97101.

  • 21.

    Xie H, Ortiz-Umpierre C. What acupuncture can and cannot treat. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2006;42:244248.

  • 22.

    Stefanatos J. Treatment to reduce radial nerve paralysis. Vet Med 1984;79:6771.

  • 23.

    La JL, Jalali S, Shami SA. Morphological studies on crushed sciatic nerve of rabbits with electroacupuncture or diclofenac sodium treatments. Am J Chin Med 2005;33:663669.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Dawidson I, Angmar-Manson B & Bloom M, et al. Sensory stimulation (acupuncture) increases the release of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the saliva of xerostomia sufferers. Neuropeptides 1999;33:244250.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Dawidson I, Angmar-Manson B & Bloom M, et al. Sensory stimulation (acupuncture) increases the release of vasoative intestinal polypeptide in the saliva of xerostomia sufferers. Neuropeptides 1998;32:543548.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Pullan PT, Finch PM & Yuen RWM, et al. Endogenous opiates modulate the release of growth hormone in response to eletroacupuncture. Life Sci 1983;32:17051709.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Meihong S, Xiaohua Q & Ye H, et al. Effects of acupuncture on the pituitary-thyroid axis in rabbits with fracture. J Tradit Chin Med 1999;19:300303.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Olby NJ. Current concepts in the management of acute spinal cord injury. J Vet Intern Med 1999;13:399407.

  • 29.

    Han JS. Acupuncture: neuropeptide release produced by electrical stimulation of different frequencies. Trends Neurosci 2003;26:1722.

  • 30.

    Chen XD, Gu YD, Yang Y. Effect of electroacupuncture on mRNA expression of NGF and IGF-1 in injured nerve. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2000;14:328331.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Han JS. Acupuncture and endorphins. Neurosci Lett 2004;361:258261.

Advertisement

Evaluation of electroacupuncture treatment for thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs

Ayne Murata HayashiDepartment of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil 05508-900.

Search for other papers by Ayne Murata Hayashi in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MSc
,
Julia Maria MateraDepartment of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil 05508-900.

Search for other papers by Julia Maria Matera in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
, and
Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos Fonseca PintoDepartment of Surgery, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo-SP, Brazil 05508-900.

Search for other papers by Ana Carolina Brandão de Campos Fonseca Pinto in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate use of electroacupuncture combined with standard Western medical treatment versus Western medical treatment alone for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs.

Design—Prospective controlled study.

Animals—50 dogs with signs of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups and classified as having grade 1 to 5 neurologic dysfunction. Dogs in group 1 received electroacupuncture stimulation combined with standard Western medical treatment; those in group 2 received only standard Western medical treatment. A numeric score for neurologic function was evaluated at 4 time points to evaluate effects of treatments.

Results—Time (mean ± SD) to recover ambulation in dogs with grade 3 and 4 dysfunction in group 1 (10.10 ± 6.49 days) was significantly lower than in group 2 (20.83 ± 11.99 days). Success (able to walk without assistance) rate for dogs with grade 3 and 4 dysfunction in group 1 (10/10 dogs) was significantly higher than that of similarly affected dogs in group 2 (6/9 dogs). Dogs without deep pain perception (grade 5 dysfunction) had a success (recovery of pain sensation) rate of 3 of 6 and 1 of 8 in groups 1 and 2, respectively, but the difference was not significant. Overall success rate (all dysfunction grades) for group 1 (23/26; 88.5%) was significantly higher than for group 2 (14/24; 58.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electroacupuncture combined with standard Western medical treatment was effective and resulted in shorter time to recover ambulation and deep pain perception than did use of Western treatment alone in dogs with signs of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate use of electroacupuncture combined with standard Western medical treatment versus Western medical treatment alone for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease in dogs.

Design—Prospective controlled study.

Animals—50 dogs with signs of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatment groups and classified as having grade 1 to 5 neurologic dysfunction. Dogs in group 1 received electroacupuncture stimulation combined with standard Western medical treatment; those in group 2 received only standard Western medical treatment. A numeric score for neurologic function was evaluated at 4 time points to evaluate effects of treatments.

Results—Time (mean ± SD) to recover ambulation in dogs with grade 3 and 4 dysfunction in group 1 (10.10 ± 6.49 days) was significantly lower than in group 2 (20.83 ± 11.99 days). Success (able to walk without assistance) rate for dogs with grade 3 and 4 dysfunction in group 1 (10/10 dogs) was significantly higher than that of similarly affected dogs in group 2 (6/9 dogs). Dogs without deep pain perception (grade 5 dysfunction) had a success (recovery of pain sensation) rate of 3 of 6 and 1 of 8 in groups 1 and 2, respectively, but the difference was not significant. Overall success rate (all dysfunction grades) for group 1 (23/26; 88.5%) was significantly higher than for group 2 (14/24; 58.3%).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Electroacupuncture combined with standard Western medical treatment was effective and resulted in shorter time to recover ambulation and deep pain perception than did use of Western treatment alone in dogs with signs of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease.

Contributor Notes

Supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES).

Presented as an abstract at 7th Brazilian College of Veterinary Surgery and Anaesthesiology Congress, Santos, Brazil, September 2006.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hayashi.