• 1

    Miller MA, Nelson SL & Turk JR, et al. Cutaneous neoplasia in 340 cats. Vet Pathol 1991;28:389395.

  • 2

    Evans AG, Madewell BR, Stannard AA. A trial of 13-cis-retinoic acid for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma and preneoplastic lesions of the head in cats. Am J Vet Res 1985;46:25532557.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Dorn CR, Taylor DO, Schneider R. Sunlight exposure and risk of developing cutaneous and oral squamous cell carcinomas in white cats. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971;46:10731078.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Lana SE, Ogilvie GK & Withrow SJ, et al. Feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum and the pinnae: 61 cases. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1997;33:329332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Kabay MJ, Jones BR. Local current field radio frequency hyperthermia for the treatment of superficial skin tumours in cats. N Z Vet J 1983;31:173176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Theon AP, VanVechten MK, Madewell BR. Intratumoral administration of carboplatin for treatment of squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal plane in cats. Am J Vet Res 1996;57:205210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Magne ML, Rodriguez CO & Autry SA, et al. Photodynamic therapy of facial squamous cell carcinoma in cats using a new photosensitizer. Lasers Surg Med 1997;20:202209.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Peaston AE, Leach MW, Higgins RJ. Photodynamic therapy for nasal and aural squamous cell carcinoma in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993;202:12611265.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Shelley BA, Bartels KE & Ely RW, et al. Use of the neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in a cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1992;201:756758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Stell AJ, Dobson JM, Langmack K. Photodynamic therapy of feline superficial squamous cell carcinoma using topical 5-ami-nolaevulinic acid. J Small Anim Pract 2001;42:164169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Fidel JL, Egger E & Blattmann H, et al. Proton irradiation of feline nasal planum squamous cell carcinomas using an accelerated protocol. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001;42:569575.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Melzer K, Guscetti F & RohrerBley C, et al. Ki67 reactivity in nasal and periocular squamous cell carcinomas in cats treated with electron beam radiation therapy. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20:676681.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Sources and their application in brachytherapy. J Int Comm Radiat Units 2004;4:2128.

  • 14

    Menon G, Sloboda R. Measurement of relative output for 90Sr ophthalmic applicators using radiochromic film. Med Dosim 2000;25:171177.

  • 15

    Turrel JM, Farrelly J & Page RL, et al. Evaluation of strontium 90 irradiation in treatment of cutaneous mast cell tumors in cats: 35 cases (1992–2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;228:898901.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Cerezo L, Otero J & Aragon G, et al. Conjunctival intraepithelial and invasive squamous cell carcinomas treated with strontium-90. Radiother Oncol 1990;17:191197.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Frauenfelder HC, Blevins WE, Page EH. 90Sr for treatment of periocular squamous cell carcinoma in the horse. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1982;180:307309.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Goodfellow M, Hayes A & Murphy S, et al. A retrospective study of (90)Strontium plesiotherapy for feline squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum. J Feline Med Surg 2006;8:169176.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Theon AP, Madewell BR & Shearn VI, et al. Prognostic factors associated with radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal plane in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:991996.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Hutson CA, Rideout BA, Pedersen NC. Neoplasia associated with feline immunodeficiency virus infection in cats of southern California. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;199:13571362.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    In: Withrow SJ, MacEwen EG, ed.Small animal clinical oncology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2001;240243.

  • 22

    Owen L. TMN classification of tumours in domestic animals. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1980.

  • 23

    Kearsley JH, Fitchew RS, Taylor RG. Adjunctive radiotherapy with strontium-90 in the treatment of conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1988;14:435443.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Rezvani M, Hamlet R & Hopewell JW, et al. Time and dose-related changes in the thickness of pig skin after irradiation with single doses of 90Sr/90Y beta-rays. Int J Radiat Biol 1994;65:497502.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Rezvani M, Hopewell JW & Wilkinson JH, et al. Time- and dose-related changes in the thickness of skin in the pig after irradiation with single doses of thulium-170 beta particles. Radiat Res 2000;153:104109.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Hopewell JW, Sieber VK & Heryet JC, et al. Dose- and sourcesize-related changes in the late response of pig skin to irradiation with single doses of beta radiation from sources of differing energy. Radiat Res 1993;133:303311.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Peel DM, Hopewell JW & Wells J, et al. Late nonstochastic changes in pig skin after beta irradiation. Radiat Res 1985;101:491496.

  • 28

    Hopewell JW. The skin: its structure and response to ionizing radiation. Int J Radiat Biol 1990;57:751773.

Advertisement

Evaluation of strontium Sr 90 for the treatment of superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal planum in cats: 49 cases (1990–2006)

Genevieve M. Hammond DVM1, Ira K. Gordon DVM2, Alain P. Theon DV, MS, DACVR3, and Michael S. Kent DVM, DACVIM, DACVR4
View More View Less
  • 1 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 2 Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To determine progression-free and overall survival times of cats with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal planum following treatment with a single fraction of strontium Sr 90 (90Sr).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—49 cats with SCC of the nasal planum.

Procedures—Information including FIV infection status, diagnosis of SCC vs SCC in situ (ie, evidence that the tumor did or did not penetrate the epidermal basement membrane, respectively), 90Sr dose and number of probe applications, treatment-related response and complications, and recurrence of SCC and new lesion development was obtained from medical records. The relationships of these variables with calculated progression-free and overall survival times were assessed.

Results—Of 49 cats that underwent 90Sr plesiotherapy (median dose, 128 Gy), 48 (98%) had a response to treatment and 43 (88%) had a complete response. Median progression-free and overall survival times were 1,710 and 3,076 days, respectively. Treatment complications were infrequent (4 [8%] cats) and mild. Following treatment, the SCC recurrence rate was 20% (10/49 cats); 16 (33%) cats developed new lesions in other locations. Overall survival time was significantly longer for cats with a complete response to treatment than for those with a partial response. None of the other variables evaluated had a significant effect on progression-free or overall survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of cats with SCC of the nasal planum with a single fraction of 90Sr appeared to be effective and well tolerated. Initial response to treatment was predictive of overall survival time.

Abstract

Objective—To determine progression-free and overall survival times of cats with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal planum following treatment with a single fraction of strontium Sr 90 (90Sr).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—49 cats with SCC of the nasal planum.

Procedures—Information including FIV infection status, diagnosis of SCC vs SCC in situ (ie, evidence that the tumor did or did not penetrate the epidermal basement membrane, respectively), 90Sr dose and number of probe applications, treatment-related response and complications, and recurrence of SCC and new lesion development was obtained from medical records. The relationships of these variables with calculated progression-free and overall survival times were assessed.

Results—Of 49 cats that underwent 90Sr plesiotherapy (median dose, 128 Gy), 48 (98%) had a response to treatment and 43 (88%) had a complete response. Median progression-free and overall survival times were 1,710 and 3,076 days, respectively. Treatment complications were infrequent (4 [8%] cats) and mild. Following treatment, the SCC recurrence rate was 20% (10/49 cats); 16 (33%) cats developed new lesions in other locations. Overall survival time was significantly longer for cats with a complete response to treatment than for those with a partial response. None of the other variables evaluated had a significant effect on progression-free or overall survival time.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Treatment of cats with SCC of the nasal planum with a single fraction of 90Sr appeared to be effective and well tolerated. Initial response to treatment was predictive of overall survival time.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Hammond.