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Anatomic distribution and electrophysiologic properties of accessory atrioventricular pathways in dogs

Roberto A. SantilliClinica Veterinaria Malpensa, Via Marconi, 27, 21017 Samarate, Varese, Italy

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Gianmario SpadaciniUniversità degli Studi dell'Insubria, Facoltà di Medicina, Via Ravasi, 2, 21100 Varese, Italy

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Paolo MorettiUniversità degli Studi dell'Insubria, Facoltà di Medicina, Via Ravasi, 2, 21100 Varese, Italy

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Manuela PeregoClinica Veterinaria Malpensa, Via Marconi, 27, 21017 Samarate, Varese, Italy

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Alberto PeriniClinica Veterinaria Malpensa, Via Marconi, 27, 21017 Samarate, Varese, Italy

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Serena CrosaraFacoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Dipartimento di Patologia Animale, Via L da Vinci, 44–10095 Grugliasco, Torino, Italy

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Alberto TarducciFacoltà di Medicina Veterinaria, Dipartimento di Patologia Animale, Via L da Vinci, 44–10095 Grugliasco, Torino, Italy

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the anatomic distribution and electrophysiologic properties of accessory pathways (APs) in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—10 dogs with tachyarrhythmias associated with an AP.

Procedures—Each dog underwent electrophysiologic testing to determine the inducibility of documented and undocumented arrhythmias and to identify location, conduction properties, and antegrade and retrograde effective refractory periods of the APs. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was then performed.

Results—15 APs were identified; 7 dogs each had a single AP, and 3 had multiple APs. Fourteen of the 15 APs were right-sided (6 right free wall, 4 posteroseptal, 3 midseptal, and 1 anteroseptal), and 1 was left-sided (left free wall). All APs conducted in an all-or-none fashion. Unidirectional retrograde conduction was observed in 11 APs, and bidirectional conduction was observed in 4. All documented tachyarrhythmias could be induced during electrophysiologic testing; atrial fibrillation was also inducible in 2 dogs. Mean ± SD cycle duration of orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia was 215.80 ± 44.87 milliseconds. Mean shortest R-R interval during atrial fibrillation was 247.33 ± 83.17 milliseconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs, most APs are right-sided, had unidirectional retrograde conduction, and are associated with various arrhythmias, including orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia and atrial fibrillation without evidence of pre-excitation.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the anatomic distribution and electrophysiologic properties of accessory pathways (APs) in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—10 dogs with tachyarrhythmias associated with an AP.

Procedures—Each dog underwent electrophysiologic testing to determine the inducibility of documented and undocumented arrhythmias and to identify location, conduction properties, and antegrade and retrograde effective refractory periods of the APs. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was then performed.

Results—15 APs were identified; 7 dogs each had a single AP, and 3 had multiple APs. Fourteen of the 15 APs were right-sided (6 right free wall, 4 posteroseptal, 3 midseptal, and 1 anteroseptal), and 1 was left-sided (left free wall). All APs conducted in an all-or-none fashion. Unidirectional retrograde conduction was observed in 11 APs, and bidirectional conduction was observed in 4. All documented tachyarrhythmias could be induced during electrophysiologic testing; atrial fibrillation was also inducible in 2 dogs. Mean ± SD cycle duration of orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia was 215.80 ± 44.87 milliseconds. Mean shortest R-R interval during atrial fibrillation was 247.33 ± 83.17 milliseconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs, most APs are right-sided, had unidirectional retrograde conduction, and are associated with various arrhythmias, including orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia and atrial fibrillation without evidence of pre-excitation.

Contributor Notes

Presented in part at the 15th Annual European College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Congress, Glasgow, Scotland, September 2005.

The authors thank Dr. Nicole Van Israel, Davide Sansottera, and Giuliano Villa for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Santilli.