• 1.

    Perelygina L, Patrusheva I & Manes N, et al. Quantitative real-time PCR for detection of monkey B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) in clinical samples. J Virol Methods 2003;109:245251.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Jerome KR, Fox R & Chen Z, et al. Herpes simplex virus inhibits apoptosis through the action of two genes, Us5 and Us3. J Virol 1999;73:89508957.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Rogers KM, Ealey KA & Ritchey JW, et al. Pathogenicity of different baboon herpesvirus papio 2 isolates is characterized by either extreme neurovirulence or complete apathogenicity. J Virol 2003;77:1073110739.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Katz D, Hilliard JK & Eberle R, et al. ELISA for detection of group-common and virus-specific antibodies in human and simian sera induced by herpes simplex and related simian viruses. J Virol Methods 1986;14:99109.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Eberle R, Black DH & Blewett EL, et al. Prevalence of herpesvirus papio 2 in baboons and identification of immunogenic viral polypeptides. Lab Anim Sci 1997;47:256262.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bigger JE, Martin DW. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses. J Gen Virol 2003;84:14111414.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Tyler SD, Peters GA, Severini A. Complete genome sequence of cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (SA8) and comparison with other simplexviruses. Virology 2005;331:429440.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Tyler SD, Severini A. The complete sequence of herpesvirus papio 2 (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 16) shows evidence of recombination events among various progenitor herpesviruses. J Virol 2006;80:12141221.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Levin JL, Hilliard JK & Lipper SL, et al. A naturally occurring epizootic of simian agent 8 in the baboon. Lab Anim Sci 1988;38:394397.

  • 10.

    Eberle R, Black DH & Lipper S, et al. Herpesvirus papio 2, an SA8-like A-herpesvirus of baboons. Arch Virol 1995;140:529545.

  • 11.

    Martino MA, Hubbard GB & Butler TM, et al. Clinical disease associated with simian agent 8 infection in the baboon. Lab Anim Sci 1998;48:1822.

  • 12.

    Eberle R, Black DH & Lehenbauer, et al. Shedding and transmission of baboon herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP2) in a breeding colony. Lab Anim Sci 1998;48:2328.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kalter SS, Weiss SA & Heberling RL, et al. The isolation of herpesvirus from trigeminal ganglia of normal baboons. Lab Anim Sci 1978;28:705709.

  • 14.

    Ochoa R, Henk WG & Confer AW, et al. Herpesviral pneumonia and septicemia in two infant Gelada baboons (Theropithecus gelada). J Med Primatol 1982;11:5218.

  • 15.

    Wolf RF, Rogers KM & Blewett EL, et al. A naturally occurring fatal case of herpesvirus papio 2 pneumonia in an infant baboon (Papio hamadryas anubis). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci 2006;45:6468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Eberle R, Hilliard J. The simian herpesviruses. Infect Agents Dis 1995;4:5570.

  • 17.

    Whitley R, Hilliard J. Cercopithecine herpesvirus (B virus). In: Fields BN, Knipe DM, Roizman B, et al, eds. Fields virology. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2001;28352848.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Allison N, Chang TC & Steele KE, et al. Fatal herpes simplex infection in a pygmy African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). J Comp Pathol 2002;126:7678.

  • 19.

    Weissenbock H, Hainfellner JA & Berger J, et al. Naturally occurring herpes simplex encephalitis in a domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Vet Pathol 1997;34:4447.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Acha PN, Szyfres B. Herpesvirus simiae. In: Acha PN, Szyfres B, eds. Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: World Health Organization, 1987;360363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Ritchey JW, Ealey KA & Payton ME, et al. Comparative pathology of infections with baboon and African green monkey A-herpesviruses in mice. J Comp Pathol 2002;127:150161.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Gosztonyi G, Falke D, Ludwig H. Axonal and transsynaptic (transneuronal) spread of Herpesvirus simiae (B virus) in experimentally infected mice. Histol Histopathol 1992;7:6374.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Rogers KM, Ritchey JW & Payton M, et al. Neuropathogenesis of herpesvirus papio 2 in mice parallels infection with Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (B virus) in humans. J Gen Virol 2006;87;267276.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Weigler BJ. Biology of B virus in macaque and human hosts: a review. Clin Infect Dis 1992;14:555567.

  • 25.

    Loomis MR, O'Neill T & Bush M, et al. Fatal herpesvirus infection in patas monkeys and a black and white colobus monkey. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1981;179:12361239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Naturally transmitted herpesvirus papio-2 infection in a black and white colobus monkey

Brigid V. Troan DVM1,2, Ludmila Perelygina PhD3, Irina Patrusheva MD4, Arnaud J. van Wettere DVM, MS5, Julia K. Hilliard PhD6, Michael R. Loomis DVM, MA, DACZM7,8, and Ryan S. De Voe DVM, MsPVM, DACZM, DACVP9,10
View More View Less
  • 1 Hanes Veterinary Medical Center, North Carolina Zoological Park, 4401 Zoo Parkway, Asheboro, NC 27203.
  • | 2 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 3 Viral Immunology Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302.
  • | 4 Viral Immunology Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302.
  • | 5 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 6 Viral Immunology Center, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30302.
  • | 7 Hanes Veterinary Medical Center, North Carolina Zoological Park, 4401 Zoo Parkway, Asheboro, NC 27203.
  • | 8 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 9 Hanes Veterinary Medical Center, North Carolina Zoological Park, 4401 Zoo Parkway, Asheboro, NC 27203.
  • | 10 Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

Abstract

Case Description—A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence.

Clinical Findings—The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation.

Treatment and Outcome—Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2).

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

Abstract

Case Description—A 6.5-year-old female eastern black and white colobus monkey (Colobus guereza) was evaluated after acute onset of ataxia and inappetence.

Clinical Findings—The monkey was ataxic and lethargic, but no other abnormalities were detected via physical examination, radiography, or clinicopathologic analyses. During the next 2 days, the monkey's clinical condition deteriorated, and its WBC count decreased dramatically. Cytologic examination of a CSF sample revealed marked lymphohistiocytic inflammation.

Treatment and Outcome—Despite supportive care, the monkey became apneic; after 20 hours of mechanical ventilation, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. At necropsy, numerous petechiae were detected within the white matter tracts of the brain; microscopic lesions of multifocal necrosis and hemorrhage with intranuclear inclusions identified in the brain and adrenal glands were consistent with an acute herpesvirus infection. A specific diagnosis of herpesvirus papio-2 (HVP-2) infection was made on the basis of results of serologic testing; PCR assay of tissue specimens; live virus isolation from the lungs; and immunohistochemical identification of the virus within brain, spinal cord, and adrenal gland lesions. Via phylogenetic tree analysis, the colobus HVP-2 isolate was grouped with neuroinvasive strains of the virus. The virus was most likely transmitted to the colobus monkey through toys shared with a nearby colony of baboons (the natural host of HVP-2).

Clinical Relevance—To the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported case of natural transmission of HVP-2 to a nonhost species. Infection with HVP-2 should be a differential diagnosis for acute encephalopathy in primate monkeys and humans, particularly following exposure to baboons.

Contributor Notes

Supported by Public Health Service grant 5P40 RR005062-18 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health.

The authors thank Dr. John Cullen for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Troan.