• 1.

    Dubey JP, Lindsay DS & Saville WJA, et al. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet Parasitol 2001;95:89131.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Marsh AE, Barr BC & Madigan J, et al. Neosporosis as a cause of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;209:19071913.

  • 3.

    Bentz BG, Granstrom DE, Stamper S. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in horses residing in a county of southeastern Pennsylvania. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:517518.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Saville WJ, Reed SM & Granstrom DE, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in horses residing in Ohio. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:519524.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Blythe LL, Granstrom DE & Hansen DE, et al. Seroprevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in horses residing in Oregon. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:525527.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    USDA. APHIS, Veterinary Services Web site. EPM: equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the US National Animal Health Monitoring System. May 2001. Available at: www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/ceah/ncahs/nahms/equine/equine98/eq98EPM.PDF. Accessed Mar 7, 2007.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Saville WJ, Reed SM & Morley PS, et al. Analysis of risk factors for the development of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:11741180.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Duarte PC, Conrad PA & Wilson WD, et al. Risk of postnatal exposure to Sarcocystis neurona and Neospora hughesi in horses. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:10471052.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Stanek JF, Stich RW & Dubey JP, et al. Epidemiology of Sarcocystis neurona infections in domestic cats (Felis domesticus) and its association with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) case farms and feral cats from a mobile spay and neuter clinic. Vet Parasitol 2003;117:239249.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Daft BM, Barr BC & Gardner IA, et al. Sensitivity and specificity of western blot testing of cerebrospinal fluid and serum for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in horses with and without neurologic abnormalities. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:10071013.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Duarte PC, Daft BM & Conrad PA, et al. Evaluation and comparison of an indirect fluorescent antibody test for detection of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona, using serum and cerebrospinal fluid of naturally and experimentally infected, and vaccinated horses. J Parasitol 2004;90:379386.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

A multicenter case-control study of risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis

Noah D. CohenDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

Search for other papers by Noah D. Cohen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, MPH, PhD, DACVIM
,
Robert J. MacKayDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 100136.

Search for other papers by Robert J. MacKay in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 BVSc, PhD, DACVIM
,
Ellen TobyCollege of Veterinary Medicine, and Department of Statistics, College of Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4475.

Search for other papers by Ellen Toby in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Frank M. AndrewsDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996.

Search for other papers by Frank M. Andrews in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM
,
Bonnie S. BarrRood & Riddle Equine Hospital, PO Box 12070, Lexington, KY 40580.

Search for other papers by Bonnie S. Barr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, DACVIM
,
Jill BeechDepartment of Clinical Sciences, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348.

Search for other papers by Jill Beech in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, DACVIM
,
William V. BernardRood & Riddle Equine Hospital, PO Box 12070, Lexington, KY 40580.

Search for other papers by William V. Bernard in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM
,
Carol K. ClarkPeterson & Smith Equine Hospital, 4747 SW 60th Ave, Ocala, FL 34474.

Search for other papers by Carol K. Clark in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM
,
Thomas J. DiversDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

Search for other papers by Thomas J. Divers in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM, DACVECC
,
Martin O. FurrMarion duPont Equine Medical Center, Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, Virginia Tech, Leesburg, VA 22075.

Search for other papers by Martin O. Furr in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DACVIM
,
Catherine W. KohnDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Catherine W. Kohn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, DACVIM
,
Michel LevyDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907.

Search for other papers by Michel Levy in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM
,
Stephen M. ReedDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.

Search for other papers by Stephen M. Reed in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM
,
Thomas L. SeahornMcGee Medicine Center, Hagyard Equine Medical Institute, 4250 Iron Works Pike, Lexington, KY 40511.

Search for other papers by Thomas L. Seahorn in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM, DACVECC
, and
Nathan M. SlovisMcGee Medicine Center, Hagyard Equine Medical Institute, 4250 Iron Works Pike, Lexington, KY 40511.

Search for other papers by Nathan M. Slovis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.

Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.

Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.

Abstract

Objective—To identify risk factors for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) among horses examined at 11 equine referral hospitals.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—183 horses with EPM, 297 horses with neurologic disease other than EPM (neurologic controls), and 168 horses with non-neurologic diseases (non-neurologic controls) examined at 11 equine referral hospitals in the United States.

Procedures—A study data form was completed for all horses. Data were compared between the case group and each of the control groups by means of bivariate and multivariate polytomous logistic regression.

Results—Relative to neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be ≥ 2 years old and to have a history of cats residing on the premises. Relative to non-neurologic control horses, case horses were more likely to be used for racing or Western performance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that cats may play a role in the natural epidemiology of EPM, that the disease is less common among horses < 2 years of age relative to other neurologic diseases, and that horses used for particular types of competition may have an increased risk of developing EPM.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Bernard's present address is 4901 Mt Horeb Pike, Lexington, KY 40511. Dr. Reed's present address is Rood & Riddle Equine Hospital, PO Box 12070, Lexington, KY 40511. Dr. Seahorn's present address is 629 Craig Ln, Georgetown, KY 40324.

Supported by Fort Dodge Animal Health, with supplemental support from the Link Equine Research Fund, Texas A&M University.

The authors thank Ms. Heather Quiram and Ms. Lindsay German for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Cohen.