• 1.

    Aguirre AA, O'Harra T & Spraker TR, et al. Monitoring the health and conservation of marine mammals, sea turtles, and their ecosystems. In: AA Aguirre, RS Ostfeld, CA House, et al, eds. Conservation medicine: ecologic health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002;7994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Miller MA, Gardner IA & Paradies D, et al. Coastal freshwater runoff is a risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol 2002;32:9971006.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Kreuder C, Miller M & Jessup DA, et al. Patterns of mortality in the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) from 1998–2001. J Wildl Dis 2003;39:495509.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Gerber LR, Tinker MT & Doak DF, et al. Mortality sensitivity in life-stage simulation analysis: a case study of southern sea otters. Ecol Appl 2004;14:11541165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Jessup DA, Miller M & Ames J, et al. Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) as a sentinel of marine ecosystem health. EcoHealth 2004;1:239245.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Miller MA, Griggs ME & Kreuder C, et al. An unusual genotype of Toxoplasma gondii is common in California sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and is a cause of mortality. Int J Parasitol 2004;34:275284.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Paine RT. A note on trophic complexity and community stability. Am Nat 1969;103:9193.

  • 8.

    Power ME, Tilman D & Estes JE, et al. Challenges in the quest for keystones. BioScience 1996;46:609620.

  • 9.

    Estes JA, Duggins DO. Sea otters and kelp forests in Alaska: generality and ariation in a community ecological paradigm. Ecol Monogr 1995;65:75100.

  • 10.

    Conrad PA, Miller MA & Kreuder C, et al. Transmission of Toxoplasma: clues from the study of sea otters as sentinels of Toxoplasma gondii flow into the marine environment. Int J Parasitol 2005;35:11251168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Estes JA, Brian B & Hatfield K, et al. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline. Mar Mamm Sci 2003;19:198216.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Tinker MT, Doak DF & Estes JA, et al. Incorporating diverse data and realistic complexity into demographic estimation procedures for sea otters. Ecol Appl 2006;16:22932312.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cole RA, Lindsay DS & Howe DK, et al. Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains obtained from southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). J Parasitol 2000;86:526530.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Thomas NJ, Cole RA. Risk of disease and threats to wild populations. Endangered Species Update 1996;13:2327.

  • 15.

    Lindsay DS, Thomas NJ, Dubey JP. Biological characterization of Sarcocystis neurona isolated from a southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol 2000;30:617624.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Stavely CM, Register KB & Miller MA, et al. Molecular and antigenic characterization of Bordetella bronchiseptica isolated from a wild southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) with severe suppurative bronchopneumonia. J Vet Diagn Invest 2003;15:570574.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kreuder C, Miller M & Lowenstine LJ, et al. Evaluation of cardiac lesions and risk factors associated with myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Am J Vet Res 2005;66:289299.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Estes JA, Riedman ML & Staedler MM, et al. Individual variation in prey selection by sea otters: patterns, causes, and implications. J Anim Ecol 2003;72:144155.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Arkush KD, Miller MA & Leutenegger CM, et al. Molecular and bioassay-based detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocyst uptake by mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). Int J Parasitol 2003;33:10871097.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Daszak PA, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD. Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Trop 2001;78:103116.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Dubey JP, Beattie CP. Toxoplasmosis of animals and man. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 1998.

  • 22.

    Dabritz HA, Atwill ER & Gardner IA, et al. Outdoor fecal deposition by free-roaming cats and attitudes of cat owners and non-owners toward stray pets, wildlife, and water pollution. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229:7481.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Graczyk TK, Fayer R & Lewis EJ, et al. Cryptosporidium oocysts in Bent mussel (Ischadium recurvum) in Cheasapeake Bay. Parasitol Res 1999;85:518521.

  • 24.

    Miller WA, Miller MA & Gardner IA, et al. New genotypes and factors associated with Cryptosporidium detection in mussels (Mytilus spp.) along the California coast. Int J Parasitol 2005;35:11031113.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Miller WA, Miller MA & Gardner IA, et al. Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Clostridium perfringens, and Plesiomonas shigelloides detected in marine and freshwater invertebrates from coastal California ecosystems. Microb Ecol 2006;52:198206.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Howard MDA, Cochlan WP & Ladizinsky N, et al. Nitrogenous preference of toxigenic Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Bacillariophyceae) from field and laboratory experiments. Harmful Algae 2007;6:206217.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Nakata H, Kannan K & Jing L, et al. Accumulation pattern of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found stranded along coastal California, USA. Environ Pollut 1998;103:4553.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Kannan K, Guruge KS & Thomas NJ, et al. Butyltin residues in southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) found dead along California coastal waters. Environ Sci Technol 1998;32:11691175.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Bacon CE, Jarman WM & Estes JA, et al. Comparison of organochlorine contaminants among sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations in California and Alaska. Environ Toxicol Chem 1999;8:452458.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Estes JA, Bacon CE & Jarman WM, et al. Organochlorines in sea otters and bald eagles from the Aleutian archipelago. Mar Pollut Bull 1997;34:486490.

  • 31.

    Lafferty KD. Can the common brain parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, influence human culture?, in Proceedings. R Soc Biol Sci 2006;27492755.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Brown AS, Schaefer CA & Quesenberry CP Jr, et al. Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry 2005;162:767773.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Perl TM, Bédard L & Kosatsky T, et al. An outbreak of toxic encephalopathy caused by eating mussels contaminated with domoic acid. N Engl J Med 1990;322:17751780.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Jensen AA, Slorach SA, eds. Chemical contaminants in human milk. Boca Raton, Fla: CRC Press, 1990.

Advertisement

Sea otters in a dirty ocean

David A. Jessup DVM, MPVM, DACZM1, Melissa A. Miller DVM, PhD2, Chris Kreuder-Johnson VMD, PhD3, Patricia A. Conrad DVM, PhD4, M. Timothy Tinker PhD5, James Estes PhD6, and Jonna A. K. Mazet DVM, MPVM, PhD7
View More View Less
  • 1 California Department of Fish and Game, 1451 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060
  • | 2 California Department of Fish and Game, 1451 Shaffer Rd, Santa Cruz, CA 95060
  • | 3 Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 4 Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616
  • | 5 Institute for Marine Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060.
  • | 6 United States Geologic Survey/Biological Resources Division, Western Ecological Research Center, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95060.
  • | 7 Wildlife Health Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Drs. Andy Dobson, Frances Gulland, Raphael Kudela, Kevin Lafferty, Michael Murray, Woutrina Miller, and Rick Ostfeld for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Jessup.