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Reconstruction of the urethra by use of an inverse tubed bipedicle flap in a dog with hypospadias

Michael M. Pavletic DVM, DACVS1
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  • 1 Department of Surgery, Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of a history of hematuria and stranguria secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed hypospadias with penile and preputial aplasia. The urethral orifice was just ventral to the ventral aspect of the anocutaneous junction. Ascending urinary tract infections, secondary to fecal contamination of the urethral orifice, were the presumed source of recurrent bouts of cystitis that developed despite periodic antimicrobial treatment.

Treatment and Outcome—A 1-cm-diameter urethral extension was constructed from the urethral mucosal remnant located along the midline of the perineum (urethral trough). Two parallel 4-cm incisions (3 cm apart) were made lateral to that urethral trough. The borders were sutured to form an inverted, epithelium-lined tube (bipedicled flap) attached to the dorsal urethral orifice. The lateral skin margins were sutured over the reconstructed urethral extension, completing the procedure. Postoperative swelling necessitated temporary catheterization of the urinary bladder. After closure of a small fistula from the reconstructed urethral segment, the dog subsequently had only 2 episodes of cystitis during a 3-year period. To minimize skin irritation secondary to urine exposure, the dog's owner regularly trimmed the hair around the new urethral orifice.

Clinical Relevance—In dogs, correction of perineal (subanal) hypospadias via urethral reconstruction should be considered among treatment options. By use of an inverse tubed urethral extension, direct fecal contamination to the lower urinary tract may be effectively eliminated, dramatically reducing the incidence of ascending urinary tract infections in dogs with hypospadias.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of a history of hematuria and stranguria secondary to recurrent urinary tract infections.

Clinical Findings—Physical examination revealed hypospadias with penile and preputial aplasia. The urethral orifice was just ventral to the ventral aspect of the anocutaneous junction. Ascending urinary tract infections, secondary to fecal contamination of the urethral orifice, were the presumed source of recurrent bouts of cystitis that developed despite periodic antimicrobial treatment.

Treatment and Outcome—A 1-cm-diameter urethral extension was constructed from the urethral mucosal remnant located along the midline of the perineum (urethral trough). Two parallel 4-cm incisions (3 cm apart) were made lateral to that urethral trough. The borders were sutured to form an inverted, epithelium-lined tube (bipedicled flap) attached to the dorsal urethral orifice. The lateral skin margins were sutured over the reconstructed urethral extension, completing the procedure. Postoperative swelling necessitated temporary catheterization of the urinary bladder. After closure of a small fistula from the reconstructed urethral segment, the dog subsequently had only 2 episodes of cystitis during a 3-year period. To minimize skin irritation secondary to urine exposure, the dog's owner regularly trimmed the hair around the new urethral orifice.

Clinical Relevance—In dogs, correction of perineal (subanal) hypospadias via urethral reconstruction should be considered among treatment options. By use of an inverse tubed urethral extension, direct fecal contamination to the lower urinary tract may be effectively eliminated, dramatically reducing the incidence of ascending urinary tract infections in dogs with hypospadias.