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Endosurgical treatment of a retrobulbar abscess in a rabbit

David Martínez-Jiménez LV, MSc1, Stephen J. Hernández-Divers BVetMed, DZooMed, DACZM2, Ursula M. Dietrich Dr med vet, DACVO3, Clara O. Williams DVM4, Megan W. Blasier DVM5, Heather Wilson DVM, DABVP6, and Paul M. Frank DVM, DACVR7
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  • 1 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 2 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 3 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 4 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 5 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 6 Departments of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 7 Departments of Anatomy and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female Netherland dwarf rabbit was examined because of a 3-week history of signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, left unilateral exophthalmia, a previous draining sinus from a left maxillary facial abscess, and bilateral nasal discharge.

Clinical Findings—The rabbit weighed 1.0 kg (2.2 lb) and had a body condition score of 1.5/5. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle atrophy, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and severe left-sided exophthalmia. Diagnostic investigation revealed anemia, neutrophilia, severe dental disease, a superficial corneal ulcer of the left eye, and a retrobulbar abscess.

Treatment and Outcome—Stomatoscopy-aided dental trimming, tooth removal, and abscess debridement were performed. Antimicrobials were flushed into the tooth abscess cavity, and antimicrobial treatment was initiated on the basis of cytologic findings and results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing.Two months after the initial surgery, minimal exophthalmia was evident and no further physical, radiographic, or ultrasonographic changes were evident.

Clinical Relevance—Stomatoscopy is a valuable technique that can facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and serial reevaluation of rabbits with dental disease.

Abstract

Case Description—A 1-year-old sexually intact female Netherland dwarf rabbit was examined because of a 3-week history of signs of lethargy, decreased appetite, left unilateral exophthalmia, a previous draining sinus from a left maxillary facial abscess, and bilateral nasal discharge.

Clinical Findings—The rabbit weighed 1.0 kg (2.2 lb) and had a body condition score of 1.5/5. Physical examination revealed generalized muscle atrophy, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, and severe left-sided exophthalmia. Diagnostic investigation revealed anemia, neutrophilia, severe dental disease, a superficial corneal ulcer of the left eye, and a retrobulbar abscess.

Treatment and Outcome—Stomatoscopy-aided dental trimming, tooth removal, and abscess debridement were performed. Antimicrobials were flushed into the tooth abscess cavity, and antimicrobial treatment was initiated on the basis of cytologic findings and results of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing.Two months after the initial surgery, minimal exophthalmia was evident and no further physical, radiographic, or ultrasonographic changes were evident.

Clinical Relevance—Stomatoscopy is a valuable technique that can facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and serial reevaluation of rabbits with dental disease.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Martínez-Jiménez's present address is Lawndale Veterinary Hospital, 4314 Lawndale Dr, Greensboro, NC 27455.

Dr. Blasier's present address is Cobb Emergency Veterinary Clinic, 630 Cobb Parkway N, Suite C, Marietta, GA 30062.

The authors thank Dr. Susan Sanchez for assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Martínez-Jiménez.