Evaluation of the use of subcutaneous implantable vascular access ports in feline blood donors

Jo Ann Morrison Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

Search for other papers by Jo Ann Morrison in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVIM
,
Susanne K. Lauer Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Search for other papers by Susanne K. Lauer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 Dr med vet, DACVS
,
Claudia J. Baldwin Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011

Search for other papers by Claudia J. Baldwin in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVIM
,
Richard B. Evans Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Search for other papers by Richard B. Evans in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD
,
Claire B. Andreasen Department of Veterinary Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Search for other papers by Claire B. Andreasen in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DACVP
,
Joanne M. Kinyon Department of Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803

Search for other papers by Joanne M. Kinyon in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
, and
Elizabeth Swanson Care Animal Hospital, 1195 E Palatine Rd, Arlington Heights, IL 60004

Search for other papers by Elizabeth Swanson in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM

Abstract

Objective—To compare the ease and effects of collecting blood from cats by use of subcutaneous totally implantable vascular access ports (VAPs) with collection via conventional jugular phlebotomy.

Design—Prospective randomized experimental study.

Animals—8 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats in the port group (n = 4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of VAPs and manual restraint, and cats in the nonport group (4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of conventional jugular phlebotomy and sedation, for 6 months.

Results—Postsurgical VAP-related complications developed in 3 cats and included port erosion (n = 1), disconnection of the port from the catheter (1), and seroma formation (1). Blood was successfully collected 24 of 24 and 20 of 20 times in the nonport and port groups, respectively. Results of bacterial culture of blood were negative in 22 of 24 and 15 of 20 nonport and port collections, respectively. No differences in RBC morphology were observed between groups. Mean blood collection and total donation times were significantly longer for the nonport group. Collection time was more variable in the nonport group, and cats were less tolerant of handling during venipuncture, compared with cats in the port group. Blood collection required a mean of 2.4 persons for the nonport group and 2.1 persons for the port group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results for blood collections via VAPs were increased donor acceptance, decreased number of personnel required, and decreased collection time. Drawbacks included contamination of blood products and port-related complications.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the ease and effects of collecting blood from cats by use of subcutaneous totally implantable vascular access ports (VAPs) with collection via conventional jugular phlebotomy.

Design—Prospective randomized experimental study.

Animals—8 healthy cats.

Procedures—Cats in the port group (n = 4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of VAPs and manual restraint, and cats in the nonport group (4) underwent monthly blood donation by use of conventional jugular phlebotomy and sedation, for 6 months.

Results—Postsurgical VAP-related complications developed in 3 cats and included port erosion (n = 1), disconnection of the port from the catheter (1), and seroma formation (1). Blood was successfully collected 24 of 24 and 20 of 20 times in the nonport and port groups, respectively. Results of bacterial culture of blood were negative in 22 of 24 and 15 of 20 nonport and port collections, respectively. No differences in RBC morphology were observed between groups. Mean blood collection and total donation times were significantly longer for the nonport group. Collection time was more variable in the nonport group, and cats were less tolerant of handling during venipuncture, compared with cats in the port group. Blood collection required a mean of 2.4 persons for the nonport group and 2.1 persons for the port group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Positive results for blood collections via VAPs were increased donor acceptance, decreased number of personnel required, and decreased collection time. Drawbacks included contamination of blood products and port-related complications.

  • 1

    Giger U. Feline transfusion medicine. In:Hohenhaus AE, ed.Transfusion medicine. (Problems in veterinary medicine). Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1992;4:4:600611.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Baldwin CJ, Cowell RL, Kostolich M, et al. Hemostasis: physiology, diagnosis, and treatment of bleeding disorders in surgical patients. In: Slatter DH, ed.Textbook of small animal surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1993;1:2952.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Baldwin CJ, Cowell RL. Inherited coagulopathies. In:August JR, ed.Consultations in feline internal medicine. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1997;3:488498.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4

    Klaser DA, Reine NJ, Hohenhaus AE. Red blood cell transfusions in cats: 126 cases (1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:920923.

  • 5

    Kaufman PM. Management of the feline blood donor. In:Hohenhaus AE, ed.Transfusion medicine. (Problems in veterinary medicine). Philadelphia: JB Lippincott, 1992;4:4:582593.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Evans KL, Smeak DD, Couto CG, et al. Comparison of two indwelling central venous access catheters in dogs undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. Vet Surg 1994;23:135142.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Blaiset M, Couto CG, Evans KL. Complications of indwelling silastic central venous access catheters in dogs and cats. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1995;31:379384.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Rassnick K, Gould W, Flanders J. Use of a vascular access system for administration of chemotherapeutic agents to a ferret with lymphoma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1995;206:500504.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Pichler ME, Turnwald GH. Blood transfusion in the dog and cat: part I. Physiology, collection, storage and indications for whole blood therapy. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1985;7:6769.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Wardrop KJ. Selection of anticoagulant-preservatives for canine and feline blood storage. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1995;25:12631276.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Brown DF, Muirhead MJ, Travis PM, et al. Mode of chemotherapy does not affect complications with an implantable venous access device. Cancer 1997;80:966972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12

    Bagley RS, Flanders JA. The use of totally implantable vascular access systems. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 1990;12:2227.

  • 13

    Sariego J, Bootorabi B, Matsumoto T, et al. Major long-term complications in 1,422 permanent venous access devices. Am J Surg 1993;165:249251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Barrios C, Zuke J, Blaes B, et al. Evaluation of an implantable venous access system in a general oncology population. Oncology 1992;49:474478.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Ballarini C, Intra M, Pisani Ceretti A, et al. Complications of subcutaneous infusion port in the general oncology population. Oncology 1999;56:97102.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Hardman D, Englund R, Hanel K. Aspects of central access catheter usage in patients with malignancy. N Z Med J 1994;107:224226.

  • 17

    Stevens B, Barton SE, Brechbill M, et al. A randomized, prospective trial of conventional vascular ports vs. the vortex “Clear Flow” reservoir port in adult oncology patients. J Vasc Access Devices 2000;14.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    Blajchman MA. Reducing the risk of bacterial contamination of cellular blood products. Dev Biol 2000;102:183193.

  • 19

    Hohenhaus AE, Drusin LM, Garvey MS. Serratia marcescens contamination of feline whole blood in a hospital blood bank. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:794798.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Illert WE, Sanger W, Weise W. Bacterial contamination of singledonor blood components. Transfus Med 1995;5:5761.

  • 21

    Kordick DL, Wilson KH, Sexton DJ, et al. Prolonged Bartonella bacteremia in cats associated with cat-scratch disease patients. J Clin Microbiol 1995;22:32453251.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Dow SW, Jones RL, Henik RA, et al. Clinical features of salmonellosis in cats: six cases (1981–1986). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1989;194:14641466.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    Hariri J, Besser TE, Gustafson SB, et al. Bacterial isolates from blood cultures of dogs undergoing dentistry. Vet Surg 1993;22:2730.

  • 24

    Nieves MA, Hartwig P, Kinyon JM, et al. Bacterial isolates from plaque and from blood during and after routine dental procedures in dogs. Vet Surg 1997;26:2632.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Henry CJ, Russell LE, Tyler JW, et al. Comparison of hematologic and biochemical values for blood samples obtained via jugular venipuncture and via vascular access ports in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:482485.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Kennedy C, Angermuller S, King R, et al. A comparison of hemolysis rates using intravenous catheters versus venipuncture tubes for obtaining blood samples. J Emerg Nurs 1996;22:566569.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Dugan L, Leech L, Speroni KG, et al. Factors affecting hemolysis rates in blood samples drawn from newly placed IV sites in the emergency department. J Emerg Nurs 2005;31:338345.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Wardrop KJ, Tucker RL, Mugnai K. Evaluation of canine red blood cells stored in a saline, adenine, and glucose solution for 35 days. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11:58.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Jonge J, Smit Sibinga CT, Das PC. Metabolic aspects and viability of heparin/CPDA-1-stored red cell concentrate as a by-product of a high yield factor VIII production method. Haemostasis 1983;13:214218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Greenwalt TJ, Zehner Sostok C, Dumaswala UJ. Studies in red blood cell preservation. 2. Comparison of vesicle formation, morphology, and membrane lipids during storage in AS-1 and CPDA-1. Vox Sang 1990;58:9093.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Knight JA, Searles DA, Clayton FC. The effect of desferrioxamine on stored erythrocytes: lipid peroxidation, deformability, and morphology. Ann Clin Lab Sci 1996;26:283290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Willemse T, Vroom MW, Mol JA, Rijnberk A. Changes in plasma cortisol, corticotropin, and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone concentrations in cats before and after physical restraint and intradermal testing. Am J Vet Res 1993;54:6972.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Griot-Wenk ME, Giger U. Feline transfusion medicine. Blood types and their clinical importance. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 1995;25:13051322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34

    Wesenberg F, Flaatten H, Janssen CW Jr. Central venous catheter with subcutaneous injection port (Port-A-Cath): 8 years clinical follow up with children. Pediatr Hematol Oncol 1993;10:233239.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35

    Cotter SM. Blood banking: I. Collection and storage, in Proceedings. 6th Annu Meet Vet Med Forum 1988;4547.

Advertisement