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Assessment of ultrasonography and computed tomography for the evaluation of unilateral orbital disease in dogs

Susanne A. E. B. BoroffkaDivision of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Anne-Marie VerbruggenPrivate Ophthalmology Clinic, 136 Avenue Orban, 1150 Brussels, Belgium

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Guy C. M. GrinwisDepartment of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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George VoorhoutDivision of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Paul Y. BarthezDivision of Diagnostic Imaging, Department of Clinical Sciences of Companion Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 108, 3508 TD, Utrecht, The Netherlands

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Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) features of confirmed neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease in dogs with unilateral orbital diseases, determine criteria to differentiate between the 2 conditions, and assess the relative value of ultrasonography and CT for the differential diagnosis of these 2 conditions.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—29 dogs with unilateral neoplastic orbital disease and 16 dogs with unilateral nonneoplastic orbital disease.

Procedures—Clinical history and results of physical and ophthalmologic examinations were recorded. Ultrasonographic and CT images were evaluated, and discriminating factors were identified to differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic diseases. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography and CT was assessed.

Results—Dogs with neoplastic disease were significantly older; had clinical signs for a longer time before initial examination; had more progressive onset of clinical signs; and more frequently had protrusion of the nictitating membrane, fever, and anorexia. The most discriminating factor for both imaging modalities was delineation of the margins (odds ratio was 41.7 for ultrasonography and 45 for CT), with neoplastic lesions clearly delineated more often. Ultrasonographically, neoplastic lesions were more frequently hypoechoic and homogeneous, with indentation of the globe and bone involvement evident more frequently than for nonneoplastic lesions. Mineralization was detected only with neoplasia. Fluctuant fluid was seen more frequently in dogs with nonneoplastic disease. Computed tomography more frequently revealed extraorbital involvement. Diagnostic value was similar for both imaging modalities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography and CT are valuable imaging modalities to assist in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic unilateral orbital disease in dogs.

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) features of confirmed neoplastic and nonneoplastic disease in dogs with unilateral orbital diseases, determine criteria to differentiate between the 2 conditions, and assess the relative value of ultrasonography and CT for the differential diagnosis of these 2 conditions.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—29 dogs with unilateral neoplastic orbital disease and 16 dogs with unilateral nonneoplastic orbital disease.

Procedures—Clinical history and results of physical and ophthalmologic examinations were recorded. Ultrasonographic and CT images were evaluated, and discriminating factors were identified to differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic diseases. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography and CT was assessed.

Results—Dogs with neoplastic disease were significantly older; had clinical signs for a longer time before initial examination; had more progressive onset of clinical signs; and more frequently had protrusion of the nictitating membrane, fever, and anorexia. The most discriminating factor for both imaging modalities was delineation of the margins (odds ratio was 41.7 for ultrasonography and 45 for CT), with neoplastic lesions clearly delineated more often. Ultrasonographically, neoplastic lesions were more frequently hypoechoic and homogeneous, with indentation of the globe and bone involvement evident more frequently than for nonneoplastic lesions. Mineralization was detected only with neoplasia. Fluctuant fluid was seen more frequently in dogs with nonneoplastic disease. Computed tomography more frequently revealed extraorbital involvement. Diagnostic value was similar for both imaging modalities.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ultrasonography and CT are valuable imaging modalities to assist in differentiating neoplastic from nonneoplastic unilateral orbital disease in dogs.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Boroffka.