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Comparison of core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes for antemortem diagnosis of enzootic bovine lymphosarcoma in cattle

Kevin E. Washburn DVM, DABVP, DACVIM1, Robert N. Streeter DVM, MS, DACVIM2, Terry W. Lehenbauer DVM, MPVM, PhD, DACVPM3, Timothy A. Snider DVM, PhD, DACVP4, Grant B. Rezabek MPH, DVM5, Jerry W. Ritchey DVM, PhD, DACVP6, James H. Meinkoth DVM, PhD, DACVP7, Robin W. Allison DVM, PhD, DACVP8, Theresa E. Rizzi DVM, DACVP9, and Melanie J. Boileau DVM, MS, DACVIM10
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 3 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 4 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 5 Oklahoma Animal Disease and Diagnostic Laboratory, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 6 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 7 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 8 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 9 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.
  • | 10 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether antemortem core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes could be used to distinguish between inflammation and lymphosarcoma in cattle.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—25 cattle with enlarged peripheral lymph nodes.

Procedures—Antemortem biopsies of the selected lymph nodes were performed with an 18-gauge, 12-cm core needle biopsy instrument. Fine-needle aspirates were performed with a 20-gauge, 4-cm needle. Specimens were analyzed by pathologists who were unaware of clinical findings and final necropsy findings, and specimens were categorized as reactive, neoplastic, or nondiagnostic for comparison with necropsy results.

Results—Sensitivity and specificity of core needle biopsy ranged from 38% to 67% and from 80% to 25%, respectively. Sensitivity of fine-needle aspiration ranged from 41% to 53%, and specificity was 100%. Predictive values for positive test results ranged from 77% to 89% for core needle biopsy and were 100% for fine-needle aspiration. Predictive values for negative test results were low for both core needle biopsy and fine-needle aspiration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that core needle biopsy and fineneedle aspiration can aid in the antemortem diagnosis of bovine enzootic lymphosarcoma. Results of fine-needle aspiration of enlarged peripheral lymph nodes were more specific and more predictive for a positive test result than were results of core needle biopsy.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Washburn's present address is Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845.

Address correspondence to Dr. Washburn.