• 1.

    Rich M. Staphylococci in animals: prevalence, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility, with an emphasis on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Br J Biomed Sci 2005;62:98105.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Devriese LA, Vancanneyt M, Baele M, et al. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius sp. nov., a coagulase-positive species from animals. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005;55:15691573.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Holm BR, Petersson U, Morner A, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci from canine pyoderma: a prospective study of first-time and recurrent cases in Sweden. Vet Rec 2002;151:600605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Frank LA, Kania SA, Hnilica KA, et al. Isolation of Staphylo-coccus schleiferi from dogs with pyoderma. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:451454.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    May ER, Hnilica KA, Frank LA, et al. Isolation of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma, or both. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:928931.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Malik S, Peng H, Barton MD. Antibiotic resistance in staphylococci associated with cats and dogs. J Appl Microbiol 2005;99:12831293.

  • 7.

    Rich M, Roberts L. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from animals. Vet Microbiol 2005;105:313314.

  • 8.

    Loeffler AS, Boag AK, Sung J, et al. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among staff and pets in a small animal referral hospital in the UK. J Antimicrob Chemother 2005;56:692697.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Guardabassi L, Schwarz S, Lloyd DH. Pet animals as reservoirs of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 2004;54:321332.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Baptiste KE, Williams K, Williams NJ, et al. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci in companion animals. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:19421944.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Enoch DA, Karas JA, Slater JD, et al. MRSA carriage in a pet therapy dog. J Hosp Infect 2005;60:186188.

  • 12.

    Petersen AD, Walker RD, Bowman MM, et al. Frequency of isolation and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus intermedius and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from canine skin and ear samples over a 6-year period (1992–1997). J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2002;38:407413.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Pellerin JL, Bourdeau P, Sebbag H, et al. Epidemiosurveillance of antimicrobial compound resistance of Staphylococcus intermedius clinical isolates from canine pyodermas. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 1998;21:115133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ganiere J-P, Medaille C, Mangion C. Antimicrobial drug susceptibility of Staphylococcus intermedius clinical isolates from canine pyoderma. Zentralbl Veterinarmed [B] 2005;52:2531.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Hartmann FA, White DG, West SHE, et al. Molecular characterization of Staphylococcus intermedius carriage by healthy dogs and comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns to isolates from dogs with pyoderma. Vet Microbiol 2005;108:119131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    van Duijkeren E, Box ATA, Heck MEOC, et al. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from animals. Vet Microbiol 2004;103:9197.

  • 17.

    Swedish veterinary antimicrobial resistance monitoring. SVARM 2004-summary. Available at: www.sva.se. Accessed Jan 12, 2006.

  • 18.

    Kania SA, Williamson NL, Frank LA, et al. Methicillin resistance of staphylococci isolated from the skin of dogs with pyoderma. Am J Vet Res 2004;65:12651268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Brown DFJ. Detection of methicillin/oxacillin resistance in staphylococci. J Antimicrob Chemother 2002;48:S1, 6570.

  • 20.

    Swensen JM, Williams P, Kilgore G, et al. Performance of eight methods, including two new methods for detection of oxacillin resistance in a challenge set of Staphylococcus aureus organisms. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:37853788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; informational supplement. Document M31-S1. Wayne, Pa: NCCLS, 2004.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Middleton JR, Fales WH, Luby CD, et al. Surveillance of Staphylococcus aureus in veterinary teaching hospitals. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:29162919.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Guardabassi L, Loeber ME, Jacobsen A. Transmission of multiple antimicrobial-resistant Staphylococcus intermedius between dogs affected by deep pyoderma and their owners. Vet Microbiol 2004;98:2327.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Bannerman TL. Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, and other catalase-positive cocci that grow aerobically. In:Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, et al, eds.Manual of clinical microbiology. Washington, DC: ASM Press, 2003;384404.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard. Document M31-A2. Wayne, Pa: NCCLS, 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals; approved standard. Document M31-A. Wayne, Pa: NCCLS, 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Fiebelkorn KR, Crawford SA, McElmeel ML, et al. Practical disk diffusion method for detection of inducible clindamycin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 2003;41:47404744.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing; informational supplement. Document M100-S9. Wayne, Pa: NCCLS, 1999.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Rosato AE, Craig WA, Archer GL. Quantitation of mecA transcription in oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates. J Bacteriol 2003;185:34463452.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    O'Mahony R, Abbott Y, Leonard FC, et al. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from animals and veterinary personnel in Ireland. Vet Microbiol 2005;109:285296.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    van Duijkeren E, Wolfhagen MJHM, Box ATA, et al. Human-to-dog transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Emerg Infect Dis 2004;10:22352237.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    van Duijkeren E, Wolfhagen MJHM, Heck MEOC, et al. Transmission of Panton-Valentine leucocidin-positive, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain between humans and a dog. J Clin Microbiol 2005;43:62096211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Manian FA. Asymptomatic nasal carriage of mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in a pet dog associated with MRSA infection in household contacts. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:2628.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Oluoch AO, Weisiger R, Sieget AM, et al. Trends of bacterial infections in dogs: characterization of Staphylococcus intermedius isolates (1990–1992). Canine Pract 1996;21:1219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Medleau L, Long RE, Brown J, et al. Frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from canine pyodermas. Am J Vet Res 1986;47:229231.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Lloyd DH, Lamport AI, Feeney C. Sensitivity to antibiotics amongst cutaneous and mucosal isolates of canine pathogenic staphylococci in the UK, 1980–1996. Vet Dermatol 1996;7:171175.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Gortel K, Campbell KL, Kakoma I, et al. Methicillin resistance among staphylococci isolated from dogs. Am J Vet Res 1999;60:15261530.

  • 38.

    Rantala M, Lahti E, Kuhalampil J, et al. Antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus spp, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp in dogs given antibiotics for chronic dermatological disorders, compared with nontreated control dogs. Acta Vet Scand 2004;45:3745.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Normand EH, Gibson NR, Reid SWR, et al. Antimicrobial-resistance trends in bacterial isolates from companion-animal community practice in the UK. Prev Vet Med 2000;46:267278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Weber SG, Gold HS, Hooper DC, et al. Fluoroquinolones and the risk for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in hospitalized patients. Emerg Infect Dis 2003;9:14151421.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Prevalence of oxacillin- and multidrug-resistant staphylococci in clinical samples from dogs: 1,772 samples (2001–2005)

Rebekah D. Jones BS1, Stephen A. Kania PhD2, Barton W. Rohrbach VMD, MPH, DACVPM3, Linda A. Frank MS, DVM, DACVD4, and David A. Bemis PhD5
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4543.
  • | 2 Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4543.
  • | 3 Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4543.
  • | 4 Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4543.
  • | 5 Department of Comparative Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-4543.

Abstract

Objective—To determine whether resistance to oxacillin and other antimicrobials in 3 Staphylococcus spp commonly isolated from dogs increased from 2001 to 2005.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—1,772 clinical samples of various types obtained from dogs examined at the University of Tennessee Veterinary Teaching Hospital or at regional veterinary hospitals and submitted to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories associated with the teaching hospital.

Procedures—Samples were submitted by attending veterinarians to the bacteriology and mycology laboratories for routine aerobic microbial culture. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility procedures were performed on all isolates. Susceptibility reports for each antimicrobial and Staphylococcus spp were determined from aggregate electronically archived test results. Oxacillin and multidrug resistance for Staphylococcus intermedius was analyzed by reviewing disk diffusion zone measurements.

Results—Oxacillin resistance increased among S intermedius isolates during the past 5 years, and the increase was associated with multidrug resistance. In 2005, 1 in 5 Staphylococcus spp isolates from canine clinical samples was resistant to oxacillin. The most common staphylococcal species isolated were S intermedius (n = 37), Staphylococcus schleiferi (21), and Staphylococcus aureus (4), and frequencies of oxacillin resistance in isolates of these species were 15.6%, 46.6%, and 23.5%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Veterinarians should be aware of the potential for empiric drug treatment failures in instances where Staphylococcus spp infections are common (eg, pyoderma). Judicious use of bacterial culture and susceptibility testing is recommended.

Contributor Notes

Supported by the Department of Comparative Medicine and a grant from the Center of Excellence, University of Tennessee.

The authors thank Mary-Jean Bryant and Brian Johnson for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Bemis.