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Indications, management, and outcome of long-term positive-pressure ventilation in dogs and cats: 148 cases (1990–2001)

Kate HopperDepartments of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Steve C. HaskinsDepartments of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Philip H. KassPopulation Health and Reproduction, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Marlis L. RezendeVeterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Janet AldrichVeterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) for 24 hours or longer and identify factors associated with successful weaning from PPV and survival to hospital discharge in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—124 dogs and 24 cats that received PPV for 24 hours or longer.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, primary diagnosis, reason for initiating PPV, measures of oxygenation and ventilation before and during PPV, ventilator settings, complications, duration of PPV, and outcome. Animals were categorized into 1 of 3 groups on the basis of the reason for PPV.

Results—Group 1 patients received PPV for inadequate oxygenation (67 dogs and 6 cats), group 2 for inadequate ventilation (46 dogs and 16 cats), and group 3 for inadequate oxygenation and ventilation (11 dogs and 2 cats). Of the group 1 animals, 36% (26/73) were weaned from PPV and 22% (16/73) survived to hospital discharge. In group 2, 50% (31/62) were weaned from PPV and 39% (24/62) survived to hospital discharge. In group 3, 3 of 13 were weaned from PPV and 1 of 13 survived to hospital discharge. Likelihood of successful weaning and survival to hospital discharge were significantly higher for group 2 animals, and cats had a significantly lower likelihood of successful weaning from PPV, compared with dogs. Median duration of PPV was 48 hours (range, 24 to 356 hours) and was not as-sociated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that long-term PPV is practical and successful in dogs and cats.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) for 24 hours or longer and identify factors associated with successful weaning from PPV and survival to hospital discharge in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—124 dogs and 24 cats that received PPV for 24 hours or longer.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, primary diagnosis, reason for initiating PPV, measures of oxygenation and ventilation before and during PPV, ventilator settings, complications, duration of PPV, and outcome. Animals were categorized into 1 of 3 groups on the basis of the reason for PPV.

Results—Group 1 patients received PPV for inadequate oxygenation (67 dogs and 6 cats), group 2 for inadequate ventilation (46 dogs and 16 cats), and group 3 for inadequate oxygenation and ventilation (11 dogs and 2 cats). Of the group 1 animals, 36% (26/73) were weaned from PPV and 22% (16/73) survived to hospital discharge. In group 2, 50% (31/62) were weaned from PPV and 39% (24/62) survived to hospital discharge. In group 3, 3 of 13 were weaned from PPV and 1 of 13 survived to hospital discharge. Likelihood of successful weaning and survival to hospital discharge were significantly higher for group 2 animals, and cats had a significantly lower likelihood of successful weaning from PPV, compared with dogs. Median duration of PPV was 48 hours (range, 24 to 356 hours) and was not as-sociated with outcome.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that long-term PPV is practical and successful in dogs and cats.

Contributor Notes

Presented in abstract form at the 10th International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium, San Diego, September 2004.

Address correspondence to Dr. Hopper.