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Long-term survival and risk factors associated with biliary surgery in dogs: 34 cases (1994–2004)

Pierre M. AmsellemDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Howard B. Seim IIIDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Catriona M. MacPhailDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Ron M. BrightNorthern Colorado Veterinary Specialists, Loveland, CO 80538 (Bright).

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David C. TwedtDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Robert H. WrigleyDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Eric MonnetDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with long-term survival after biliary surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—34 dogs that underwent biliary surgery.

Procedures—Data extracted from medical records included sex, breed, body weight, age at surgery, history and clinical examination findings, preoperative and postoperative CBC, serum biochemical panel and coagulation profiles results, abdominal ultrasonographic findings, results of bacteriologic culture and histologic examination, surgical findings, postoperative complications, and survival time. Follow-up information was obtained from medical records or phone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Primary biliary findings included gallbladder mucocele (n = 20 dogs), inflammatory diseases (4), trauma (3), and neoplasia (1). Secondary biliary diseases included pancreatitis (n = 4), pancreatic neoplasia (1), and duodenal perforation (1). One- and 2-year survival rates were both 66%. Increasing age; γ-glutamyltransferase activity; preanesthetic heart rate; BUN, phosphorus, and bilirubin concentrations; and the use of biliary diversion procedures were risk factors for death, although pancreatitis was not. However, poor long-term survival was associated with pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term prognosis was guarded after biliary surgery in dogs. However, dogs that survived the early postoperative period had good long-term prognosis. Dogs with pancreatitis had poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis was worse for dogs that underwent a biliary diversion, compared with dogs that did not.

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with long-term survival after biliary surgery in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—34 dogs that underwent biliary surgery.

Procedures—Data extracted from medical records included sex, breed, body weight, age at surgery, history and clinical examination findings, preoperative and postoperative CBC, serum biochemical panel and coagulation profiles results, abdominal ultrasonographic findings, results of bacteriologic culture and histologic examination, surgical findings, postoperative complications, and survival time. Follow-up information was obtained from medical records or phone conversations with owners and referring veterinarians.

Results—Primary biliary findings included gallbladder mucocele (n = 20 dogs), inflammatory diseases (4), trauma (3), and neoplasia (1). Secondary biliary diseases included pancreatitis (n = 4), pancreatic neoplasia (1), and duodenal perforation (1). One- and 2-year survival rates were both 66%. Increasing age; γ-glutamyltransferase activity; preanesthetic heart rate; BUN, phosphorus, and bilirubin concentrations; and the use of biliary diversion procedures were risk factors for death, although pancreatitis was not. However, poor long-term survival was associated with pancreatitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Long-term prognosis was guarded after biliary surgery in dogs. However, dogs that survived the early postoperative period had good long-term prognosis. Dogs with pancreatitis had poor prognosis. Overall, the prognosis was worse for dogs that underwent a biliary diversion, compared with dogs that did not.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Dr. Scott Rizzo for assistance with data collection.

Address correspondence to Dr. Monnet.