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Evaluation of factors associated with survival in dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas: 139 cases (1993–2003)

Kenneth M. Rassnick DVM, DACVIM1, Carrie E. Goldkamp VMD2, Hollis N. Erb DVM, MS, PhD3, Peter V. Scrivani DVM, DACVR4, Bradley L. Njaa DVM, MVSc, DACVP5, Tracy L. Gieger DVM, DACVIM6, Michelle M. Turek DVM, DACVIM, DACVR7, Elizabeth A. McNiel DVM, PhD, DACVIM, DACVR8, David R. Proulx DVM, MSpVM, DACVIM, DACVR9, Ruthanne Chun DVM, DACVIM10, Glenna E. Mauldin DVM, MS, DACVIM, DACVN11, Brenda S. Phillips DVM, DACVIM12, and Orna Kristal DVM, DACVIM13
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  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 3 Department of Population Medicine and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 5 Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853
  • | 6 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602
  • | 7 Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 8 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108
  • | 9 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 10 Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
  • | 11 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803
  • | 12 Pet Emergency and Specialty Center, 5232 Jackson Dr, Ste 105, La Mesa, CA 91941.
  • | 13 Animal Cancer Specialists, 11536 Lake City Way NE, Seattle, WA 98125

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas that did not receive treatment or received only palliative treatment.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—139 dogs with histologically confirmed nasal carcinomas.

Procedures—Medical records, computed tomography images, and biopsy specimens of nasal carcinomas were reviewed. Only dogs that were not treated with radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy and that survived ≥ 7 days from the date of diagnosis were included. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival time. Factors potentially associated with survival were compared by use of log-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariable survival analysis was performed by use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results—Overall median survival time was 95 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 73 to 113 days; range, 7 to 1,114 days). In dogs with epistaxis, the hazard of dying was 2.3 times that of dogs that did not have epistaxis. Median survival time of 107 dogs with epistaxis was 88 days (95% CI, 65 to 106 days) and that of 32 dogs without epistaxis was 224 days (95% CI, 54 to 467 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis of dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas is poor. Treatment strategies to improve outcome should be pursued.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate factors associated with survival in dogs with nasal carcinomas that did not receive treatment or received only palliative treatment.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—139 dogs with histologically confirmed nasal carcinomas.

Procedures—Medical records, computed tomography images, and biopsy specimens of nasal carcinomas were reviewed. Only dogs that were not treated with radiation, surgery, chemotherapy, or immunotherapy and that survived ≥ 7 days from the date of diagnosis were included. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival time. Factors potentially associated with survival were compared by use of log-rank and Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariable survival analysis was performed by use of the Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results—Overall median survival time was 95 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 73 to 113 days; range, 7 to 1,114 days). In dogs with epistaxis, the hazard of dying was 2.3 times that of dogs that did not have epistaxis. Median survival time of 107 dogs with epistaxis was 88 days (95% CI, 65 to 106 days) and that of 32 dogs without epistaxis was 224 days (95% CI, 54 to 467 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The prognosis of dogs with untreated nasal carcinomas is poor. Treatment strategies to improve outcome should be pursued.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Turek's present address is Angell Animal Medical Center, 350 S Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02130.

Dr. Proulx's present address is California Veterinary Specialists Angel Care Cancer Center, 100 N Rancho Santa Fe Rd, Ste 133, San Marcos, CA 92069.

Dr. Chun's present address is Department of Medical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.

Dr. Phillips' present address is Veterinary Specialty Hospital San Diego, 10435 Sorrento Valley Rd, San Diego, CA 92121.

Presented in part at the 25th Annual Conference of the Veterinary Cancer Society, Huntington Beach, Calif, October 2005.

The authors thank Drs. Elizabeth Brown, Kathy Graf, Tracy LaDue, Kim Selting, Ravi Dhaliwal, and Carlos Rodriguez for contribution of cases to this study.

Address correspondence to Dr. Rassnick.