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Colonic seromuscular augmentation cystoplasty following subtotal cystectomy for treatment of bladder necrosis caused by bladder torsion in a dog

Antonio Pozzi DMV, MS, DACVS1, Daniel D. Smeak DVM, DACVS2, and Rhonda Aper DVM, MS, DACVS3
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210
  • | 3 Eastern Iowa Veterinary Specialty Center, 755 Capital Dr SW, Cedar Rapids, IA 52404

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, stranguria, and anuria after routine ovariohysterectomy.

Clinical Findings—On initial examination, signs of abdominal pain and enlargement of the urinary bladder were detected. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, azotemia, and hyperkalemia. Radiography and surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed urinary bladder torsion at the level of the trigone; histologically, there was necrosis of 90% of the organ.

Treatment and Outcome—After excision of the necrotic wall of the urinary bladder (approx 0.5 cm cranial to the ureteral orifices), the remaining bladder stump was closed with a colonic seromuscular patch. Eleven weeks later, cystoscopy revealed an intramural ureteral stricture, for which treatment included a mucosal apposition neoureterocystostomy. Thirteen months after the first surgery, the dog developed pyelonephritis, which was successfully treated. By 3 months after subtotal cystectomy, the dog's urinary bladder was almost normal in size. Frequency of urination decreased from 3 to 4 urinations/h immediately after surgery to once every 3 hours after 2 months; approximately 4 months after the subtotal cystectomy, urination frequency was considered close to normal.

Clinical Relevance—Urinary bladder torsion is a surgical emergency in dogs. Ischemia of the urinary bladder wall may result from strangulation of the arterial and venous blood supply and from overdistension. Subtotal resection of the urinary bladder, preserving only the trigone area and the ureteral openings, and colonic seromuscular augmentation can be used to successfully treat urinary bladder torsion in dogs.

Abstract

Case Description—A 5-year-old Labrador Retriever was evaluated because of a 3-day history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting, stranguria, and anuria after routine ovariohysterectomy.

Clinical Findings—On initial examination, signs of abdominal pain and enlargement of the urinary bladder were detected. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included leukocytosis, azotemia, and hyperkalemia. Radiography and surgical exploration of the abdomen revealed urinary bladder torsion at the level of the trigone; histologically, there was necrosis of 90% of the organ.

Treatment and Outcome—After excision of the necrotic wall of the urinary bladder (approx 0.5 cm cranial to the ureteral orifices), the remaining bladder stump was closed with a colonic seromuscular patch. Eleven weeks later, cystoscopy revealed an intramural ureteral stricture, for which treatment included a mucosal apposition neoureterocystostomy. Thirteen months after the first surgery, the dog developed pyelonephritis, which was successfully treated. By 3 months after subtotal cystectomy, the dog's urinary bladder was almost normal in size. Frequency of urination decreased from 3 to 4 urinations/h immediately after surgery to once every 3 hours after 2 months; approximately 4 months after the subtotal cystectomy, urination frequency was considered close to normal.

Clinical Relevance—Urinary bladder torsion is a surgical emergency in dogs. Ischemia of the urinary bladder wall may result from strangulation of the arterial and venous blood supply and from overdistension. Subtotal resection of the urinary bladder, preserving only the trigone area and the ureteral openings, and colonic seromuscular augmentation can be used to successfully treat urinary bladder torsion in dogs.

Contributor Notes

The authors thank Dr. Mary M. McLoughlin for technical assistance.

Address correspondence to Dr. Pozzi.