• 1.

    McIlwraith CW, Yovich JV, Martin GS. Arthroscopic surgery for the treatment of osteochondral chip fractures in the equine carpus. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1987;191:531540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    McIlwraith CW. Experiences in diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy in the horse. Equine Vet J 1987;16:1119.

  • 3.

    Babcock HM, Matava MJ, Fraser V. Postarthroscopy surgical site infections: review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:6571.

  • 4.

    Macdonald CG, Morley PS, Bailey JV, et al. An examination of the occurrence of surgical wound infection following equine orthopedic surgery. Equine Vet J 1994;26:323326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Oishi CS, Carrion WV, Hoaglund FT. Use of parenteral antimicrobials in clean orthopedic surgery. Clin Orthop 1993;296:249255.

  • 6.

    Whitten TL, Johnson AL, Smith CW, et al. Effect of perioperative prophylactic antimicrobial treatment in dogs undergoing elective orthopedic surgery. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;215:212216.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bramlage LR. Long bone fractures. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 1983;5:285310.

  • 8.

    Santschi EM. Diagnosis and management of surgical site infection and antimicrobial prophylaxis. In: Auer JA, Stick JA, eds. Equine surgery. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999;5459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Vasseur PB, Paul HA, Enos LR, et al. Infection rates in clean surgical procedures: a comparison of ampicillin prophylaxis vs a placebo. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1985;187:825827.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    McIlwraith CW, Robertson JT. McIlwraith and Turner's equine surgery advanced techniques. 2nd ed. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Co, 1998;1415.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kernodle DS, Barg NL, Kaiser AB. Low-level colonization of hospitalized patients with methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci and the emergence of organisms during surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1988;32:202208.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Olix ML, Klug TJ, Smith WS. Prophylactic antimicrobials in elective operations on bones, joints, and tendons. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1960;42:538541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Cohen ND, Woods AM. Characteristics and risk factors for failure of horses with acute diarrhea to survive: 122 cases (1990–1996). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:382390.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    House JK, Mainar-Jaime RC, Smith BP, et al. Risk factors for nosocomial Salmonella infection among hospitalized horses. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1999;214:15111516.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Madison JB, Sommer M, Spencer PA. Relations among synovial membrane histopathologic findings, synovial fluid cytologic findings, and bacterial culture results in horses with suspected infectious arthritis: 64 cases (1979–1987). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1991;198:16551661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Hague BA, Honnas CM, Simpson RB, et al. Evaluation of skin bacterial flora before and after aseptic preparation of clipped and nonclipped arthrocentesis sites in horses. Vet Surg 1997;26:121125.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Snyder JR, Pascoe JR, Hirsch DC. Antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms isolated from equine orthopedic patients. Vet Surg 1987;16:197201.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    De Cock HE, Affolter VK, Farver TB, et al. Measurement of skin desmosine as an indicator of altered cutaneous elastin in draft horses with chronic progressive lymphedema. Lymphat Res Biol 2006;4:6772.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Riley CB, Scott WM, Fretz PB, et al. Osteochondrosis in draft horse breeds: a retrospective study of 25 cases (1985–1995), in Proceedings. 24th Annu Conf Vet Orthop Soc 1997;44.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Schneider RK, Bramlage LR, Moore RM, et al. A retrospective study of 192 horses affected with septic arthritis/tenosynovitis. Equine Vet J 1992;24:436442.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    McIlwraith CW. General technique and diagnostic arthroscopy. Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy of the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints. In: Diagnostic and surgical arthroscopy in the horse. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1990;21, 397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Smith RL, Merchant TTC, Schurman DJ. In vitro cartilage degradation by Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Arthritis Rheum 1982;25:441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Bertone AL. Infectious arthritis. In: McIlwraith WC, Trotter GW, eds. Joint disease in the horse. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1996;5459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Evaluation of the rate of development of septic arthritis after elective arthroscopy in horses: 7 cases (1994–2003)

Ashleigh M. OldsDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Search for other papers by Ashleigh M. Olds in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Allison A. StewartDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Search for other papers by Allison A. Stewart in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, MS, DACVS
,
David E. FreemanDepartment of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Search for other papers by David E. Freeman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MVB, PhD, DACVS
, and
David J. SchaefferDepartment of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

Search for other papers by David J. Schaeffer in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 PhD

Abstract

Objective—To determine the rate of development of septic arthritis after elective arthroscopy and evaluate associations between various factors and development of this complication in horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—682 horses that underwent arthroscopic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1994 to 2003.

Procedures—Information pertaining to signalment, joints treated, whether antimicrobials were administered, and development of postoperative septic arthritis was collected from medical records. Horses with a primary problem of septic arthritis or wounds involving joints were excluded. The following factors were evaluated to determine their roles in joint sepsis: breed, sex, joint, and preoperative and intra-articular administration of antimicrobials. Telephone interviews with clients were used to determine whether unreported septic arthritis had developed.

Results—8 of 932 (0.9%) joints in 7 of 682 (1.0%) horses that underwent arthroscopy developed postoperative septic arthritis. Follow-up information after discharge from the hospital was available for 461 of the 682 horses, and of those, 8 of 627 (1.3%) joints in 7 of 461 (1.5%) horses developed septic arthritis. Breed and joint treated were significant risk factors for development of postoperative septic arthritis, with draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints more likely than others to be affected. Sex, preoperatively administered antimicrobials, and intra-articularly administered antimicrobials were not associated with development of postoperative septic arthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results can be used for comparison with data from other institutions and surgical facilities. Additional precautions should be undertaken when arthroscopic surgery involves draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the rate of development of septic arthritis after elective arthroscopy and evaluate associations between various factors and development of this complication in horses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—682 horses that underwent arthroscopic procedures at the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital from 1994 to 2003.

Procedures—Information pertaining to signalment, joints treated, whether antimicrobials were administered, and development of postoperative septic arthritis was collected from medical records. Horses with a primary problem of septic arthritis or wounds involving joints were excluded. The following factors were evaluated to determine their roles in joint sepsis: breed, sex, joint, and preoperative and intra-articular administration of antimicrobials. Telephone interviews with clients were used to determine whether unreported septic arthritis had developed.

Results—8 of 932 (0.9%) joints in 7 of 682 (1.0%) horses that underwent arthroscopy developed postoperative septic arthritis. Follow-up information after discharge from the hospital was available for 461 of the 682 horses, and of those, 8 of 627 (1.3%) joints in 7 of 461 (1.5%) horses developed septic arthritis. Breed and joint treated were significant risk factors for development of postoperative septic arthritis, with draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints more likely than others to be affected. Sex, preoperatively administered antimicrobials, and intra-articularly administered antimicrobials were not associated with development of postoperative septic arthritis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results can be used for comparison with data from other institutions and surgical facilities. Additional precautions should be undertaken when arthroscopic surgery involves draft breeds and tibiotarsal joints.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Olds' present address is Golden Animal Hospital, 17575 S Golden Rd, Golden, CO 80401.

Dr. Freeman's present address is Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

Address correspondence to Dr. Stewart.