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Evaluation of catheter-associated urinary tract infections and multi–drug-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from the urine of dogs with indwelling urinary catheters

Jennifer Ogeer-GylesDepartment of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Karol MathewsDepartment of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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J. Scott WeeseDepartment of Clinical Studies, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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John F. PrescottDepartment of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Patrick BoerlinDepartment of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with indwelling urinary catheters in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the frequency of multi–drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli UTIs in those dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—All dogs in the ICU with an indwelling urinary catheter from January 2003 through December 2003.

Procedures—Urine samples and rectal swab specimens were collected at admission and every 3 days until discharge from the hospital. Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples and rectal swab specimens and those from dogs that were temporally or spatially associated with dogs with MDR E coli UTIs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on MDR isolates from urine and rectal swab specimens.

Results—Urinary catheters were placed in 137 dogs. Twenty-six UTIs were diagnosed, 15 on the day of admission and 11 after 3 or more days of catheterization. Of 12 dogs with E coli UTIs, 6 were infected at admission and 6 acquired the infection in the ICU. Two MDR E coli UTIs were detected, 1 of which was acquired in the ICU. One MDR E coli urinary isolate had an electrophoresis pattern similar to that of rectal isolates from the same dog. Urinary E coli isolates were most frequently resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ICU-acquired MDR E coli UTI likely originated from the dog's intestinal flora during hospitalization. Dogs that have been referred from a community practice may have MDR E coli UTIs at the time of admission.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the frequency of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in dogs with indwelling urinary catheters in an intensive care unit (ICU) and the frequency of multi–drug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli UTIs in those dogs.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—All dogs in the ICU with an indwelling urinary catheter from January 2003 through December 2003.

Procedures—Urine samples and rectal swab specimens were collected at admission and every 3 days until discharge from the hospital. Escherichia coli isolates from urine samples and rectal swab specimens and those from dogs that were temporally or spatially associated with dogs with MDR E coli UTIs underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed on MDR isolates from urine and rectal swab specimens.

Results—Urinary catheters were placed in 137 dogs. Twenty-six UTIs were diagnosed, 15 on the day of admission and 11 after 3 or more days of catheterization. Of 12 dogs with E coli UTIs, 6 were infected at admission and 6 acquired the infection in the ICU. Two MDR E coli UTIs were detected, 1 of which was acquired in the ICU. One MDR E coli urinary isolate had an electrophoresis pattern similar to that of rectal isolates from the same dog. Urinary E coli isolates were most frequently resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The ICU-acquired MDR E coli UTI likely originated from the dog's intestinal flora during hospitalization. Dogs that have been referred from a community practice may have MDR E coli UTIs at the time of admission.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Ogeer-Gyles' present address is Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4474.

Supported by The Pet Trust Fund, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph.

Presented in part at the International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society Symposium, San Diego, September 2004.

Address correspondence to Dr. Ogeer-Gyles.