• 1

    Kane AB, Kumar V. Environmental and nutritional pathology. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, eds. Pathologic basis of disease.. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc, 2005;415468.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Liu C, Crawford JM. The gastrointestinal tract. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, eds. Pathologic basis of disease.. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Inc, 2005;797875.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Frelier PF, Leininger RW, Armstrong LD, et al. Suspected parvovirus infection in porcupines. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1984;185:12911294.

  • 4

    Stokol T, Randolph JF, Nachbar S, et al. Development of bone marrow toxicosis after albendazole administration in a dog and cat. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:17531756.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Weber MA, Terrell SP, Neiffer DL, et al. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:417419.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Lacey E. Mode of action of benzimidazoles. Parasitol Today 1990;6:112115.

  • 7

    Gull K, Dawson PJ, Davis C, et al. Microtubules as target organs for benzimidazole anthelmintic chemotherapy. Biochem Soc Trans 1987;15:5960.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Veterinary Medicine web site. Adverse drug experience reporting. Available at: www.fda.gov/cvm/adetoc.htm. Accessed Feb 13, 2006.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Hayes RH, Oehme FW, Leipold H. Toxicity investigation of fenbendazole, an anthelmintic of swine. Am J Vet Res 1983;44:11081111.

  • 10

    Carpenter JW, Mashima TY, Rupiper DJ. Rodents. In: Carpenter JW, Mashima TY, Rupiper DJ, eds. Exotic animal formulary.. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2001;273.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Felicetti LA, Shipley LA, Witmer GW, et al. Digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and mean retention time by North American porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum) consuming natural forages. Physiol Biochem Zool 2000;73:772780.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Presumptive fenbendazole toxicosis in North American porcupines

Martha A. Weber DVM, DACZM1, Michele A. Miller DVM, PhD2, Donald L. Neiffer VMD3, and Scott P. Terrell DVM, DACVP4
View More View Less
  • 1 Disney's Animal Kingdom, PO Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.
  • | 2 Disney's Animal Kingdom, PO Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.
  • | 3 Disney's Animal Kingdom, PO Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.
  • | 4 Disney's Animal Kingdom, PO Box 10000, Lake Buena Vista, FL 32830.

Abstract

Case Description—4 North American porcupines were evaluated because of diarrhea or neutropenia (or both) that developed after treatment with fenbendazole for intestinal parasites.

Clinical Findings—Complete blood cell count abnormalities included severe neutropenia in all affected porcupines and mild anemia in some of them. In 2 porcupines, postmortem findings included bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis.

Treatment and Outcome—Affected porcupines received supportive care including fluid supplementation and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The 2 surviving animals recovered after 9 to 33 days of treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fenbendazole is an anthelminthic that may be used in an extralabel manner for the treatment of intestinal parasitism in wildlife species. The drug inhibits mitosis and can affect rapidly dividing cell lines, such as those in the bone marrow and intestinal crypt mucosa. Fenbendazole may not be an appropriate anthelminthic choice in North American porcupines.

Abstract

Case Description—4 North American porcupines were evaluated because of diarrhea or neutropenia (or both) that developed after treatment with fenbendazole for intestinal parasites.

Clinical Findings—Complete blood cell count abnormalities included severe neutropenia in all affected porcupines and mild anemia in some of them. In 2 porcupines, postmortem findings included bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis.

Treatment and Outcome—Affected porcupines received supportive care including fluid supplementation and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The 2 surviving animals recovered after 9 to 33 days of treatment.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Fenbendazole is an anthelminthic that may be used in an extralabel manner for the treatment of intestinal parasitism in wildlife species. The drug inhibits mitosis and can affect rapidly dividing cell lines, such as those in the bone marrow and intestinal crypt mucosa. Fenbendazole may not be an appropriate anthelminthic choice in North American porcupines.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Weber's present address is St Louis Zoo, 1 Government Dr, St Louis, MO 63110.

Address correspondence to Dr. Weber.