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Nocardioform placentitis with isolation of Amycolatopsis spp in a Florida-bred mare

Bruce W. Christensen DVM1, John F. Roberts DVM, DACVP2, Malgorzata A. Pozor Med Vet, PhD, DACT3, Steeve Giguere DVM, PhD, DACVIM4, Stephen F. Sells MS5, and James M. Donahue PhD6
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  • 1 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 2 Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 3 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 4 Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610.
  • | 5 Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40512.
  • | 6 Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40512.

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated because of placental abnormalities and a retained placental remnant.

Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the placenta yielded pure growth of Amycolatopsis spp. Histologic examination of the placenta revealed a focally expanding chorionitis with intralesional gram-positive filamentous bacilli and multifocal allantoic adenomatous hyperplasia on the apposing allantoic surface.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with lavage and oxytocin resulted in expulsion of the placental remnant within hours of parturition. The mare did not become pregnant again despite multiple breedings. The foal appeared healthy but died of complications during an elective surgical procedure at 7 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, all previously confirmed cases of nocardioform placentitis have been in mares bred in the central Kentucky region. Indications that the pathogen in the mare reported here is a different species than that isolated in Kentucky suggest that this is an emerging disease. Mares with nocardioform placentitis usually do not have the same clinical signs as mares with placentitis resulting from an ascending pathogen.

Abstract

Case Description—A 4-year-old Thoroughbred mare was evaluated because of placental abnormalities and a retained placental remnant.

Clinical Findings—Microbial culture of the placenta yielded pure growth of Amycolatopsis spp. Histologic examination of the placenta revealed a focally expanding chorionitis with intralesional gram-positive filamentous bacilli and multifocal allantoic adenomatous hyperplasia on the apposing allantoic surface.

Treatment and Outcome—Treatment with lavage and oxytocin resulted in expulsion of the placental remnant within hours of parturition. The mare did not become pregnant again despite multiple breedings. The foal appeared healthy but died of complications during an elective surgical procedure at 7 weeks of age.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—To the author's knowledge, all previously confirmed cases of nocardioform placentitis have been in mares bred in the central Kentucky region. Indications that the pathogen in the mare reported here is a different species than that isolated in Kentucky suggest that this is an emerging disease. Mares with nocardioform placentitis usually do not have the same clinical signs as mares with placentitis resulting from an ascending pathogen.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Christensen.