• 1

    Bowman DD. Georgi's parasitology for veterinarians. 7th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1999; 178201, 316320.

  • 2

    Schantz PM. Zoonotic ascarids and hookworms: the role for veterinarians in preventing human disease. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2002; 24(suppl 1A): 4752.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Hill SL, Cheney JM, Taton-Allen GF, et al. Prevalence of enteric zoonotic organisms in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216: 687692.

  • 4

    Lightner L, Christensen BM, Beran GW. Epidemiologic findings on canine and feline intestinal nematode infections from records of the Iowa State University veterinary clinic. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978; 172: 564567.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5

    Nolan TJ, Smith G. Time series analysis of the prevalence of endoparasitic infections in cats and dogs presented to a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Parasitol 1995; 59: 8796.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Kirkpatrick CE. Epizootiology of endoparasitic infections in pet dogs and cats presented to a veterinary teaching hospital. Vet Parasitol 1988; 30: 113124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Visco RJ, Corwin RM, Selby LA. Effect of age and sex on prevalence of intestinal parasitism in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1978; 172: 797800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Carleton RE, Tolbert MK. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis and gastrointestinal helminths in cats euthanized at animal control agencies in northwest Georgia. Vet Parasitol 2004; 119: 319326.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9

    Spain CV, Scarlett JM, Wade SE, et al. Prevalence of enteric zoonotic agents in cats less than 1 year old in central New York state. J Vet Intern Med 2001; 15: 3338.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Department of Health and Human Services, CDC. Summary of notifiable diseases—United States, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 52: 18.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    Anderson TC, Foster GW, Forrester DJ. Hookworms of feral cats in Florida. Vet Parasitol 2003; 115: 1924.

  • 12

    Dryden MW, Payne PA, Ridley R, et al. Comparison of common fecal flotation techniques for the recovery of parasite eggs and oocysts. Vet Ther 2005; 6: 1528.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13

    Bowman DD, Hendrix CM, Lindsay DS, et al. Feline clinical parasitology. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 2002; 242245, 274287.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14

    Hugh-Jones ME, Hubbert WT, Hagstad HV. Zoonoses: recognition, control, and prevention. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1995;229236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Glickman LT, Schantz PM. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of zoonotic toxocariasis. Epidemiol Rev 1981; 3: 230250.

  • 16

    Stabenfeldt GH, Pedersen NC. Reproduction and reproductive disorders. In: Pederson NC, ed. Feline husbandry: diseases and management in the multiple-cat environment. Goleta, Calif: American Veterinary Publications Inc, 1991;129162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Lein DH. Infertility and reproductive diseases in bitches and queens. In: Roberts SJ, ed. Veterinary obstetrics and genital diseases. North Pomfret, Vt: David and Charles Inc, 1986;698708.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18

    CDC Web site. Guidelines for veterinarians: prevention of zoonotic transmission of ascarids and hookworms of dogs and cats. Available at: www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/ascaris/prevention.htm. Accessed Jun 10, 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Fisher M. Toxocara cati: an underestimated zoonotic agent. Trends Parasitol 2003; 19: 167170.

  • 20

    Blagburn BL. Prevalences of canine and feline parasites in the United States. In: Zoonotic diseases 102. Lenexa, Kan: Advanstar Veterinary Healthcare Communications, 2005;3236.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Dimski DS. Helminth and noncoccidial protozoan parasites of the gastrointestinal tract. In: Sherding RG, ed. The cat: diseases and clinical management. Vol 1. New York: Churchill Livingstone Inc, 1994; 585605.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Estimated prevalence of nematode parasitism among pet cats in the United States

Andrea C. De SantisDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by Andrea C. De Santis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM
,
Malathi RaghavanDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by Malathi Raghavan in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD
,
Richard J. CaldanaroDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by Richard J. Caldanaro in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MS
,
Nita W. GlickmanDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by Nita W. Glickman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 MPH, PhD
,
George E. MooreDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by George E. Moore in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, PhD, DACVPM, DACVIM
,
Hugh B. LewisBanfield, the Pet Hospital, 11815 NE Glenn Widing Dr, Portland, OR 97220.

Search for other papers by Hugh B. Lewis in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 DVM, DACVP
,
Peter M. SchantzDivision of Parasitic Diseases NCID, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Mail Stop F22, 4770 Buford Hwy, GA 30341.

Search for other papers by Peter M. Schantz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, PhD
, and
Lawrence T. GlickmanDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2027.

Search for other papers by Lawrence T. Glickman in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
 VMD, DrPH

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Study Population—356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003.

Procedure—Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results—A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats < 4 years old; sexually intact cats; mixed-breed cats; and cats examined during the summer, fall, or winter more likely to be infected. Age, reproductive status, and season were significant risk factors for hookworm infection, with cats < 1 year old, sexually intact cats, and cats examined during the summer more likely to be infected. Regional differences in prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections in pet cats in the United States and identify risk factors for parasitism.

Design—Retrospective period prevalence survey.

Study Population—356,086 cats examined at 359 private veterinary hospitals during 2003.

Procedure—Electronic medical records were searched to identify cats for which fecal flotation tests had been performed and to determine proportions of test results positive for roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. Potential risk factors for roundworm and hookworm infection were identified by means of multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results—A total of 80,278 tests were performed on fecal samples from 66,819 cats. Calculated prevalences of roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infection were 2.92%, 0.63%, and 0.031%, respectively. Age, reproductive status, breed, and season were significant risk factors for roundworm infection, with cats < 4 years old; sexually intact cats; mixed-breed cats; and cats examined during the summer, fall, or winter more likely to be infected. Age, reproductive status, and season were significant risk factors for hookworm infection, with cats < 1 year old, sexually intact cats, and cats examined during the summer more likely to be infected. Regional differences in prevalences of roundworm and hookworm infection were found.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that prevalences of nematode infections among pet cats in the United States may be lower than previously suspected on the basis of prevalences reported among cats in humane shelters and those reported in more geographically focused studies.

Contributor Notes

Supported in part by grant RO1 CI 000093 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and grants V0060804 and V203103 from the Food and Drug Administration.

The authors thank Banfield, The Pet Hospital, for providing access to their clinical database.

Dr. De Santis.