Evaluation of adverse effects of long-term orally administered carprofen in dogs

Marja R. Raekallio Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

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Anna K. Hielm-Björkman Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

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Johanna Kejonen Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

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Hanna M. Salonen Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

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Satu M. Sankari Department of Clinical Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the adverse effects of carprofen in dogs after oral administration for 2 months.

Design—Prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—22 dogs with osteoarthritis in the hip or elbow joint.

Procedure—13 dogs received orally administered carprofen daily for 2 months, and 9 dogs received a placebo for 2 months. Dogs were weighed, and serum and urine samples were collected before initiation of treatment and 4 and 8 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Urinary ALP-to-creatinine, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-to-creatinine, and protein-to-creatinine ratios were calculated. Dogs were observed by owners for adverse effects.

Results—Serum protein and albumin concentrations were lower in treated dogs than in those that received placebo at 4 weeks, but not at 8 weeks. No changes were observed in serum urea or creatinine concentrations; ALP or ALT activity; or urinary ALP-to-creatinine, GGT-to-creatinine, or protein-to-creatinine ratios. Dogs' weights did not change. Severity of vomiting, diarrhea, and skin reactions did not differ between groups, but appetite was better in dogs receiving carprofen than in dogs in the placebo group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is possible that the transient decreases in serum protein and albumin concentrations in dogs that received carprofen were caused by altered mucosal permeability of the gastrointestinal tract because no indications of renal or hepatic toxicity were observed. Carprofen appeared to be well tolerated by dogs after 2 months of administration.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the adverse effects of carprofen in dogs after oral administration for 2 months.

Design—Prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Animals—22 dogs with osteoarthritis in the hip or elbow joint.

Procedure—13 dogs received orally administered carprofen daily for 2 months, and 9 dogs received a placebo for 2 months. Dogs were weighed, and serum and urine samples were collected before initiation of treatment and 4 and 8 weeks after initiation of treatment. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, and creatinine and serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Urinary ALP-to-creatinine, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT)-to-creatinine, and protein-to-creatinine ratios were calculated. Dogs were observed by owners for adverse effects.

Results—Serum protein and albumin concentrations were lower in treated dogs than in those that received placebo at 4 weeks, but not at 8 weeks. No changes were observed in serum urea or creatinine concentrations; ALP or ALT activity; or urinary ALP-to-creatinine, GGT-to-creatinine, or protein-to-creatinine ratios. Dogs' weights did not change. Severity of vomiting, diarrhea, and skin reactions did not differ between groups, but appetite was better in dogs receiving carprofen than in dogs in the placebo group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—It is possible that the transient decreases in serum protein and albumin concentrations in dogs that received carprofen were caused by altered mucosal permeability of the gastrointestinal tract because no indications of renal or hepatic toxicity were observed. Carprofen appeared to be well tolerated by dogs after 2 months of administration.

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