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Renal transplantation in cats with calcium oxalate urolithiasis: 19 cases (1997–2004)

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  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.
  • | 2 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.
  • | 5 Department of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

Abstract

Objective—To determine outcome of renal transplantation in cats with renal failure associated with calcium oxalate urolithiasis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—19 cats.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for evaluation of signalment, preoperative clinical signs, physical examination results, dietary history, clinicopathologic data, abdominal imaging, postoperative diet, complications, and long-term outcome.

Results—The domestic shorthair was the most common breed represented. There were 13 spayed females and 7 castrated males. Mean age was 6.8 years. Clinical signs included weight loss, lethargy, vomiting, anorexia, polyuria, and polydipsia. Before surgery, cats received commercially available canned or dry food (n = 10), a prescription renal failure diet (5), a commercial diet to manage struvite crystalluria (1), or an unknown diet (3). Seventeen cats were anemic. All cats were azotemic. Hypercalcemia was detected in 7 cats. Abdominal imaging revealed nephrolithiasis, ureterolithiasis, or both in all cats. Median duration of survival of all cats was 605 days. Eight cats were alive 282 to 2,005 days (median, 1,305 days) after surgery. Eleven cats died 2 to 1,197 days (median, 300 days) after surgery. Five cats formed calculi in their allograft (120 to 665 days). Two of the 5 cats that formed calculi were hypercalcemic. Four of the 5 cats died following complications associated with formation of calculi.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Renal transplantation appears to be a viable option for cats in renal failure secondary to calcium oxalate urolithiasis. In addition to reported complications in renal transplant recipients, formation of calculi within the allograft may also occur.

Contributor Notes

Dr. Aronson.