• 1

    Betge L. The torsion of an accessory liver lobe as the rare cause of acute abdomen. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 1995; 120: 13181320.

  • 2

    Bronson E, Coolman B. A lethargic dog with anorexia and a history of gastric distension—challenging cases in internal medicine. Vet Med 2002; 97: 895898.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3

    Downs MO, Miller MA, Cross AR, et al.Liver lobe torsion and liver abscess in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1998; 212: 678680.

  • 4

    Elmasalme F, Aljudaibi A, Matbouly S, et al.Torsion of an accessory lobe of the liver in an infant. J Pediatr Surg 1995; 30: 13481350.

  • 5

    Feins NR, Borger J. Torsion of the right lobe of the liver with partial obstruction of the colon. J Pediatr Surg 1972; 7: 724725.

  • 6

    Fitzgerald A, Fitzgerald S. Hepatic lobe torsion in a New Zealand white rabbit. Canine Pract 1992;17(1):1619.

  • 7

    Grunz J, Luisiri A, Cradock T. Torsion of a hepatic lobe in the neonate—ultrasound findings. Pediatr Radiol 1992; 22: 192193.

  • 8

    Hamir AN. Torsion of the liver in a sow. Vet Rec 1980; 106: 362363.

  • 9

    Koplewitz BZ, Manson DE, Ein SH. Posttraumatic torsion of accessory lobe of the liver and the gallbladder. Pediatr Radiol 1999; 29: 799802.

  • 10

    Koumanidou C, Nasi E, Koutrouveli E, et al.Torsion of an accessory hepatic lobe in a child: ultrasound, computed tomographic, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Pediatr Surg Int 1998; 13: 526527.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11

    McConkey S, Briggs C, Solano M, et al.Liver torsion and associated bacterial peritonitis in a dog. Can Vet J 1997; 38: 438439.

  • 12

    Morin M, Sauvageau R, Phaneuf JB, et al.Torsion of abdominal organs in sows: a report of 36 cases. Can Vet J 1984; 25: 440442.

  • 13

    Sanguesa C, Esteban MJ, Gomez J, et al.Liver accessory lobe torsion in the infant. Pediatr Radiol 1995; 25: 153154.

  • 14

    Sato AF, Solano M. Radiographic diagnosis: liver lobe entrapment and associated emphysematous hepatitis. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 1998; 39: 123124.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15

    Singh M, Foster A, Marchevsky A, et al.Hepatic lobe torsion and gastric-dilation volvulus in a dog. Aust Vet Pract 2002; 32: 174178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16

    Sonnenfield JM, Armbrust LJ, Radlinsky MA, et al.Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings of liver lobe torsion in a dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2001; 42: 344346.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17

    Swann HM, Brown DC. Hepatic lobe torsion in 3 dogs and a cat. Vet Surg 2001;30:482486.

  • 18

    Tomlinson J, Black A. Liver lobe torsion in a dog. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1983; 183: 225226.

  • 19

    Turner TA, Brown CA, Wilson JH, et al.Hepatic lobe torsion as a cause of colic in a horse. Vet Surg 1993; 22: 301304.

  • 20

    Warns-Petit ES. Liver lobe torsion in an oriental small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). Vet Rec 2001; 148: 212213.

  • 21

    Weisbroth SH. Torsion of the caudate lobe of the liver in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus). Vet Pathol 1975; 12: 1315.

  • 22

    Wilson RB, Holscher MA, Sly DL. Liver lobe torsion in a rabbit. Lab Anim Sci 1987; 37: 506507.

  • 23

    Woolfe DT, English B. Torsion of the left lateral and papillary lobes of the liver in a pup; a case report. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1959; 134: 458459.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Neath PJ, Brockman DJ, Saunders HM. Retrospective analysis of 19 cases of isolated torsion of the splenic pedicle in dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1997; 38: 387392.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, et al.Non-dietary risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in large and giant breed dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 217: 14921499.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Glickman LT, Glickman NW, Schellenberg DB, et al.Incidence of and breed-related risk factors for gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000; 216: 4045.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Hurley RE, Stone MS. Isolated torsion of the splenic pedicle in a dog. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1994; 30: 119122.

  • 28

    Montgomery RD, Henderson RA, Horne RD, et al.Primary splenic torsion in dogs: literature review and report of five cases. Canine Pract 1990;15(2):1721.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29

    Latimer KS. Leukocytes in health and disease. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1995; 19051907.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30

    Center SA. Pathophysiology, laboratory diagnosis, and diseases of the liver. In: Ettinger SJ, Feldman EC, eds. Textbook of veterinary internal medicine. 4th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 1995; 12611312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31

    Glickman LT, Lantz GC, Schellenberg DB, et al.A prospective study of survival and recurrence following an acute gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in 136 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1998; 34: 253259.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32

    Goldsmid SE, Davis P, Pechman R. Successful derotation of a splenic torsion in a racing Greyhound. J Small Anim Pract 1994; 35: 112115.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33

    Steyn PR, Wittum TE. Radiographic, epidemiologic, and clinical aspects of simultaneous pleural and peritoneal effusions in dogs and cats: 48 cases (1982–1991). J Am Vet Med Assoc 1993; 202: 307312.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

Advertisement

Liver lobe torsion in dogs: 13 cases (1995–2004)

Susanna G. Hinkle Schwartz DVM1, Susan L. Mitchell DVM, DACVS2, John H. Keating DVM, DACVP3, and Daniel L. Chan DVM, DACVECC, DACVN4
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

Abstract

Objective—To determine history, results of diagnostic testing, surgical findings, complications, and outcome for dogs with liver lobe torsion (LLT).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 dogs (1 with 2 episodes).

Procedure—Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical and histologic findings, complications, and hospitalization time were evaluated.

Results—The most common clinical signs were nonspecific abnormalities (eg, vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia) of acute or chronic duration. All dogs were large-breed dogs (median body weight, 37.2 kg [82 lb]). Biochemical abnormalities included high alanine amino-transferase (n = 12) and aspartate aminotransferase (11) activities. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were supportive of the diagnosis in 5 of 8 cases. Affected lobes included the left medial lobe (n = 4), left lateral lobe (3), papillary process of the caudate lobe (2), caudate lobe (1), and right lateral lobe (1). Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in 12 of 13 cases, and in 11 of those 12 cases, the dog survived.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that development of nonspecific clinical signs of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia in conjunction with high serum hepatic enzyme activities and mature neutrophilia in a medium-sized or large-breed dog should increase the index of suspicion for LLT. Abdominal ultrasonography with Doppler assessment may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. The long-term outcome for dogs that survive the hospitalization period is excellent.

Abstract

Objective—To determine history, results of diagnostic testing, surgical findings, complications, and outcome for dogs with liver lobe torsion (LLT).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—12 dogs (1 with 2 episodes).

Procedure—Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, radiographic and ultrasonographic findings, surgical and histologic findings, complications, and hospitalization time were evaluated.

Results—The most common clinical signs were nonspecific abnormalities (eg, vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia) of acute or chronic duration. All dogs were large-breed dogs (median body weight, 37.2 kg [82 lb]). Biochemical abnormalities included high alanine amino-transferase (n = 12) and aspartate aminotransferase (11) activities. Results of abdominal ultrasonography were supportive of the diagnosis in 5 of 8 cases. Affected lobes included the left medial lobe (n = 4), left lateral lobe (3), papillary process of the caudate lobe (2), caudate lobe (1), and right lateral lobe (1). Exploratory celiotomy and liver lobectomy were performed in 12 of 13 cases, and in 11 of those 12 cases, the dog survived.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that development of nonspecific clinical signs of vomiting, lethargy, and anorexia in conjunction with high serum hepatic enzyme activities and mature neutrophilia in a medium-sized or large-breed dog should increase the index of suspicion for LLT. Abdominal ultrasonography with Doppler assessment may be useful in establishing the diagnosis. The long-term outcome for dogs that survive the hospitalization period is excellent.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Mitchell.

Dr. Chan's present address is Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Ln, Hatfield, Herts AL9 7TA, UK.