• 1

    Cooper JE, Harrison GJ. Dermatology. In: Ritchie BW, Harrison GJ, Harrison LR, eds. Avian medicine: principles and application. Lake Worth, Fla: Wingers Publishing, 1994; 622625.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2

    Hillyer EV, Quesenberry KE, Baer K. Basic avian dermatology, in Proceedings. 11th Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet 1989; 101121.

  • 3

    Rosenthal K. The feather-picking pet bird, in Proceedings. 15th Annu Mid-Atlantic States Assoc Avian Vet 1994; 125130.

  • 4

    Lamberski N. A diagnostic approach to feather picking. Semin Avian Exotic Pet Med 1995; 4: 161168.

  • 5

    Nett CS, Tully TN. Anatomy, clinical presentation, and diagnostic approach to feather-picking pet birds. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 2003; 25: 206219.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6

    Scott DW, Miller WH, Griffin CE. Fungal skin diseases. In: Small animal dermatology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co, 2001; 364366.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7

    Bond R, Ferguson EA, Curtis CF, et al.Factors associated with elevated cutaneous Malassezia pachydermatis populations in dogs with pruritic skin disease. J Small Anim Pract 1996; 37: 103107.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8

    Mason KV, Evans AG. Dermatitis associated with Malassezia pachydermatis in 11 dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1991; 27: 1320.

  • 9

    Kennis RA, Rosser EJ, Olivier NB, et al.Quantity and distribution of Malassezia organisms on the skin of clinically normal dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996; 208: 10481051.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10

    Lehmann PF. Immunology of fungal infections in animals. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 1985; 10: 3369.

  • 11

    Van Sant F. Impression cytology: new insights into avian skin flora, in Proceedings. 21st Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet. 1999; 139141.

  • 12

    Grahm DL. The avian integument: its structure and selected diseases, in Proceedings. 7th Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet 1985; 3351.

  • 13

    Dalhausen B. Feather picking in pet birds, in Proceedings. 18th Annu Mid-Atlantic States Assoc Avian Vet 1997; 15.

  • 14

    Wade LL. Yeast dermatitis/conjunctivitis in a canary (Serinus canaria), in Proceedings. 22nd Annu Conf Assoc Avian Vet 2000; 475478.

  • 15

    Kuttin ES, Beemer AM, Meroz M. Chicken dermatitis and loss of feathers from Candida albicans. Avian Dis 1976; 20: 216218.

  • 16

    Schmidt RE, Reavill DR, Phalen DN. Pathology of pet and aviary birds. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State Press, 2003; 180181.

  • 17

    Breuer-Strosberg R, Hochleithner M, Kuttin ES. Malassezia pachydermatis isolation from a scarlet macaw. Mycoses 1990; 33: 247250.

  • 18

    Bond R, Saijonmaa-Koulumies LEM, Lloyd DH. Population sizes and frequency of Malassezia pachydermatis at skin and mucosal sites on healthy dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1995; 36: 147150.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19

    Printer L, Noble NC. Stomatitis, pharyngitis, and tonsillitis caused by Malassezia pachydermatis in a dog. Vet Dermatol 1999; 9: 257260.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20

    Gardes M, White TJ, Fortin JA, et al.Identification of indigenous and introduced symbiotic fungi in ectomycorrhizae by amplification of nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA. Can J Bot 1991; 69: 180190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21

    Henry T, Iwen PC, Hinrichs SH. Identification of Aspergillus species using internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 15101515.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22

    Turenne CY, Sanche SE, Hoban DJ, et al.Rapid identification of fungi by using the internal transcribed spacer 2 genetic region and an automated fluorescent capillary electrophoresis system. J Clin Microbiol 1999; 37: 18461851.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23

    White TJ, Burns T, Lee S, et al.Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky JJ, et al, eds. PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. San Diego: Academic Press Inc, 1990; 315322.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24

    Fujita S, Lasker BA, Lott TJ, et al.Microtitration plate enzyme immunoassay to detect PCR-amplified DNA from Candida species in blood. J Clin Microbiol 1995; 33: 962967.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25

    Sugita T, Suto H, Unno T, et al.Molecular analysis of Malassezia microflora on the skin of atopic dermatitis patients and healthy subjects. J Clin Microbiol 2001;39:34863490.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26

    Fujita S, Senda Y, Nakaguchi S, et al.Multiplex PCR using internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 regions for rapid detection and identification of yeast strains. J Clin Microbiol 2001; 39: 16171622.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27

    Rosenthal KL, Morris DO, Mauldin EA, et al.Cytologic, histologic, and microbiologic characterization of the feather pulp and follicles of feather-picking psittacine birds: a preliminary study. J Avian Med Surg 2004; 18: 137143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28

    Morris DO, O'Shea K, Shofer FS, et al.Malassezia pachydermatis carriage in dog owners. Emerg Infect Dis 2005; 11: 8388.

Advertisement

Distribution of Malassezia organisms on the skin of unaffected psittacine birds and psittacine birds with feather-destructive behavior

Diane E. Preziosi DVM, DACVD, DABVP1, Daniel O. Morris DVM, DACVD2, Matthew S. Johnston VMD, DABVP3, Karen L. Rosenthal DVM, DABVP4, Kathleen O'Shea5, and Shelley C. Rankin PhD6
View More View Less
  • 1 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 2 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 3 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 4 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 5 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
  • | 6 Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Abstract

Objective—To ascertain whether Malassezia organisms can be detected via cytologic examination and fungal culture of samples from the skin surface of psittacine birds and determine whether the number of those organisms differs between unaffected psittacines and those that have chronic feather-destructive behavior or differs by body region.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—50 unaffected psittacines and 53 psittacines that had feather-destructive behavior.

Procedure—Samples were collected by use of acetate tape strips from the skin of the head, neck, proventer, propatagium, inguinal region, and preen gland area of each bird; 0.5-cm2 sample areas were examined microscopically for yeast, and samples were also incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Polymerase chain reaction assays specific for Malassezia spp, saprophytic fungi, and Candida albicans were performed on DNA prepared from cultured colonies; nested PCR evaluation for Malassezia pachydermatis was then performed.

Results—Microscopically, 63 of 618 (10%) tape-strip samples contained yeast. Thirty cultured colonies were assessed via PCR assays, and all yielded negative results for Malassezia spp; C albicans was identified in 2 colony samples. The numbers of yeast identified microscopically in psittacines with feather-destructive behavior and in unaffected birds did not differ significantly, and numbers did not differ by body region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yeast were identified infrequently via cytologic examination of samples from the skin surface of unaffected psittacine birds or those that had chronic feather-destructive behavior. If yeast are identified on the skin of birds with feather-destructive behaviors, fungal culture of skin samples should be performed to identify the organism.

Abstract

Objective—To ascertain whether Malassezia organisms can be detected via cytologic examination and fungal culture of samples from the skin surface of psittacine birds and determine whether the number of those organisms differs between unaffected psittacines and those that have chronic feather-destructive behavior or differs by body region.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—50 unaffected psittacines and 53 psittacines that had feather-destructive behavior.

Procedure—Samples were collected by use of acetate tape strips from the skin of the head, neck, proventer, propatagium, inguinal region, and preen gland area of each bird; 0.5-cm2 sample areas were examined microscopically for yeast, and samples were also incubated on Sabouraud dextrose agar. Polymerase chain reaction assays specific for Malassezia spp, saprophytic fungi, and Candida albicans were performed on DNA prepared from cultured colonies; nested PCR evaluation for Malassezia pachydermatis was then performed.

Results—Microscopically, 63 of 618 (10%) tape-strip samples contained yeast. Thirty cultured colonies were assessed via PCR assays, and all yielded negative results for Malassezia spp; C albicans was identified in 2 colony samples. The numbers of yeast identified microscopically in psittacines with feather-destructive behavior and in unaffected birds did not differ significantly, and numbers did not differ by body region.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yeast were identified infrequently via cytologic examination of samples from the skin surface of unaffected psittacine birds or those that had chronic feather-destructive behavior. If yeast are identified on the skin of birds with feather-destructive behaviors, fungal culture of skin samples should be performed to identify the organism.

Contributor Notes

Address correspondence to Dr. Preziosi.

Dr. Preziosi's present address is Veterinary Specialists of Alaska, 3330 Fairbanks St, Anchorage, AK 99503.

Dr. Johnston's present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Denver, CO 80523.

Supported by a departmental research grant from the School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania.

The authors thank Dr. Fran Shofer for statistical analyses.