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Cardiopulmonary effects of controlled versus spontaneous ventilation in pigeons anesthetized for coelioscopy

Gwenola Touzot-Jourde DV, DACVA1,2, Stephen J. Hernandez-Divers BVetMed, DACZM3, and Cynthia M. Trim BVSc, DVA, DACVA4
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  • 1 Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.
  • | 2 Present address is Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1620.
  • | 3 Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.
  • | 4 Department of Large Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605.

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects of controlled versus spontaneous ventilation in pigeons anesthetized for coelioscopy.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—30 healthy adult pigeons (Columbia livia).

Procedure—During isoflurane anesthesia, 15 pigeons were allowed to breathe spontaneously (SP group) and 15 were mechanically ventilated (MV group) by use of a pressure-limited ventilator. In each group, cardiopulmonary variables (including end-tidal CO2 concentration [ETCO2]) were measured before (baseline), during, and after coelioscopy. An arterial blood sample was collected for blood gas analyses from each pigeon before coelioscopy and after the procedure, when the caudal thoracic air sac was still open.

Results—At baseline, hypoventilation was greater in the SP group than the MV group. Compared with the SP group values, ETCO2 overestimated PaCO2 to a greater degree in the MV group. Cardiovascular variables were not different between groups. After coelioscopy (when the air sac was open), PaCO2 had decreased significantly from baseline in the MV group. In the SP group, hypoventilation worsened despite an increase in respiratory rate. After coelioscopy, PaO2 in the SP group had decreased from baseline and was lower than PaO2 in the MV group; arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the MV group had decreased from baseline and were lower than values in the SP group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In adult pigeons, controlled ventilation delivered by a pressurelimited device was not associated with clinically important adverse cardiopulmonary changes but may be associated with respiratory alkalosis and cardiovascular depression when air sac integrity has been disrupted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1424–1428)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the cardiorespiratory effects of controlled versus spontaneous ventilation in pigeons anesthetized for coelioscopy.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—30 healthy adult pigeons (Columbia livia).

Procedure—During isoflurane anesthesia, 15 pigeons were allowed to breathe spontaneously (SP group) and 15 were mechanically ventilated (MV group) by use of a pressure-limited ventilator. In each group, cardiopulmonary variables (including end-tidal CO2 concentration [ETCO2]) were measured before (baseline), during, and after coelioscopy. An arterial blood sample was collected for blood gas analyses from each pigeon before coelioscopy and after the procedure, when the caudal thoracic air sac was still open.

Results—At baseline, hypoventilation was greater in the SP group than the MV group. Compared with the SP group values, ETCO2 overestimated PaCO2 to a greater degree in the MV group. Cardiovascular variables were not different between groups. After coelioscopy (when the air sac was open), PaCO2 had decreased significantly from baseline in the MV group. In the SP group, hypoventilation worsened despite an increase in respiratory rate. After coelioscopy, PaO2 in the SP group had decreased from baseline and was lower than PaO2 in the MV group; arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the MV group had decreased from baseline and were lower than values in the SP group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In adult pigeons, controlled ventilation delivered by a pressurelimited device was not associated with clinically important adverse cardiopulmonary changes but may be associated with respiratory alkalosis and cardiovascular depression when air sac integrity has been disrupted. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1424–1428)