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Evaluation of the association between sex and risk of forming urate uroliths in Dalmatians

Hasan AlbasanMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
Present address is the Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey 38039.

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Jody P. LulichMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Carl A. OsborneMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.

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Chalermpol LekcharoensukMinnesota Urolith Center, Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN 55108.
Present address is the Department of Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand 10900.

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Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that urate uroliths are uncommonly detected in female Dalmatians, compared with males.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Medical records of dogs evaluated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America from 1981 to 2002 and compiled by the Veterinary Medical Database, and records of dogs with uroliths submitted for quantitative analyses to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1981 to 2002.

Procedures—Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess whether sex (male vs female) was a risk factor for urate urolithiasis.

Results—In Dalmatians evaluated by veterinary teaching hospitals in North America, males were more likely (OR, 13.0) to form uroliths, compared with females. In Dalmatians that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were more likely (OR, 14.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females. In all dogs (Dalmatian and non-Dalmatian) that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were also more likely (OR, 48.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When conducting studies and formulating generalities about urate urolithiasis in Dalmatians, it is important to consider sex-related differences in urolith occurrence. Long-term dietary or drug protocols designed to minimize formation of urate uroliths in male Dalmatians may not be warranted in female Dalmatians. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:565–569)

Abstract

Objective—To test the hypothesis that urate uroliths are uncommonly detected in female Dalmatians, compared with males.

Design—Case-control study.

Sample Population—Medical records of dogs evaluated at veterinary teaching hospitals in North America from 1981 to 2002 and compiled by the Veterinary Medical Database, and records of dogs with uroliths submitted for quantitative analyses to the Minnesota Urolith Center from 1981 to 2002.

Procedures—Crude odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess whether sex (male vs female) was a risk factor for urate urolithiasis.

Results—In Dalmatians evaluated by veterinary teaching hospitals in North America, males were more likely (OR, 13.0) to form uroliths, compared with females. In Dalmatians that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were more likely (OR, 14.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females. In all dogs (Dalmatian and non-Dalmatian) that formed uroliths analyzed by the Minnesota Urolith Center, males were also more likely (OR, 48.0) to form urate uroliths, compared with females.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When conducting studies and formulating generalities about urate urolithiasis in Dalmatians, it is important to consider sex-related differences in urolith occurrence. Long-term dietary or drug protocols designed to minimize formation of urate uroliths in male Dalmatians may not be warranted in female Dalmatians. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:565–569)