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Correlation of rhinoscopic signs of inflammation with histologic findings in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease

Lynelle R. JohnsonDepartment of Veterinary Medicine and Epidemiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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 DVM, PhD, DACVIM
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Heather E. ClarkeDepartment of Veterinary Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Michael J. BannaschCenter for Companion Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Hilde E. V. De CockDepartment of Pathology, Microbiology, and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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 DVM, PhD, DACVP

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction with the type and severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical histories (27).

Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3 [severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates (lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were compared for each specimen-cavity combination.

Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a positive but weak correlation between cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently obtained from cavities that appeared normal rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically) was weak or lacking in cats of known and unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 395–400)

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the correlation of cumulative rhinoscopic findings of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction with the type and severity of inflammatory infiltrates in nasal biopsy specimens of cats with or without upper respiratory tract disease.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—Cats with (n = 11) and without (6) upper respiratory tract disease and cats with unknown medical histories (27).

Procedures—Lesions of hyperemia, mucus accumulation, and turbinate destruction detected rhinoscopically were each scored (scale, 0 [absent] to 3 [severe]), and a cumulative rhinoscopic score for each nasal cavity was calculated. Fifty biopsy specimens were examined histologically, and inflammatory infiltrates (lymphoplasmacytic or neutrophilic) were graded as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades were compared for each specimen-cavity combination.

Results—In cats of known disease status, there was a positive but weak correlation between cumulative rhinoscopic scores and inflammation grades in biopsy specimens. In cats of unknown disease status, there was no similar correlation. Biopsy specimens with minimal inflammation were commonly obtained from nasal cavities with low rhinoscopic scores; specimens with moderate or severe inflammatory changes were frequently obtained from cavities that appeared normal rhinoscopically. Type of inflammatory infiltrates was not correlated with rhinoscopic signs of inflammation.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The correlation of rhinoscopic findings with inflammation severity in nasal biopsy specimens (determined histologically) was weak or lacking in cats of known and unknown disease status, respectively. Results indicated that rhinoscopy with biopsy provides more complete evaluation of nasal disease than rhinoscopy alone in cats. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 395–400)