Risk factors associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease

Nicolas S. ErnstDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Jorge A. HernandezDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Robert J. MacKayDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Murray P. BrownDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Jack M. GaskinDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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An D. NguyenDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Steeve GiguereDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Patrick T. ColahanDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Mats R. TroedssonDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Gregory R. HainesDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Iva R. AddisonDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Ben J. MillerDepartment of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610-0136.

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Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic methods. The relationship between investigated exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was examined by means of logistic regression.

Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60 [20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%), and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Adult horses that had been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization. Adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did not undergo abdominal surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during hospitalization were associated with Salmonella shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)

Abstract

Objective—To estimate prevalence of and identify risk factors for fecal Salmonella shedding among hospitalized horses with signs of gastrointestinal tract disease.

Design—Cross-sectional study.

Animals—465 hospitalized horses with gastrointestinal tract disease.

Procedure—Horses were classified as positive or negative for fecal Salmonella shedding during hospitalization by means of standard aerobic bacteriologic methods. The relationship between investigated exposure factors and fecal Salmonella shedding was examined by means of logistic regression.

Results—The overall prevalence of fecal Salmonella shedding was 13%. Salmonella serotype Newport was the most commonly isolated serotype (12/60 [20%]), followed by Anatum (8/60 [13%]), Java (13%), and Saint-paul (13%). Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were 3.27 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Adult horses that had been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization were 3.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that had not been treated with antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization. Adult horses that underwent abdominal surgery were 2.09 times as likely to be shedding Salmonella organisms as were adult horses that did not undergo abdominal surgery.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a history of exposure to antimicrobial drugs prior to hospitalization and abdominal surgery during hospitalization were associated with Salmonella shedding in adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. Foals with gastrointestinal tract disease were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms than were adult horses with gastrointestinal tract disease. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:275–281)