In vitro study of heat production during power reduction of equine mandibular teeth

Martin L. Allen Firethorn Equine Services, 5701 Lancaster-Circleville Rd, Lancaster, OH 43130.

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 DVM, MS
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Gordon J. Baker Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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 BVSc, PhD, DACVS
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David E. Freeman Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Kenneth R. Holmes Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Sandra Manfra Marretta Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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R. Dean Scoggins Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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Peter Constable Department of Clinical Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61802.

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 BVSc, PhD, DACVIM

Abstract

Objective—To measure the amount of heat generated during 3 methods of equine dental reduction with power instruments.

Design—In vitro study.

Sample Population—30 premolar and molar teeth removed from mandibles of 8 equine heads collected at an abbatoir.

Procedure—38-gauge copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the lingual side of each tooth 15 mm (proximal) and 25 mm (distal) from the occlusal surface, at a depth of 5 mm, which placed the tip close to the pulp chamber. Group-NC1 (n = 10) teeth were ground for 1 minute without coolant, group-NC2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes without coolant, and group-C2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes with water for coolant.

Results—Mean temperature increase was 1.2°C at the distal thermocouple and 6.6°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC1 teeth, 4.1°C at the distal thermocouple and 24.3°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC2 teeth, and 0.8°C at the distal thermocouple and –0.1°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-C2 teeth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In general, an increase of 5°C in human teeth is considered the maximum increase before there is permanent damage to tooth pulp. In group-NC2 teeth, temperature increased above this limit by several degrees, whereas in group-C2 teeth, there was little or no temperature increase. Our results suggest that major reduction of equine teeth by use of power instruments causes thermal changes that may cause irreversible pulp damage unless water cooling is used. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1128–1132)

Abstract

Objective—To measure the amount of heat generated during 3 methods of equine dental reduction with power instruments.

Design—In vitro study.

Sample Population—30 premolar and molar teeth removed from mandibles of 8 equine heads collected at an abbatoir.

Procedure—38-gauge copper-constantan thermocouples were inserted into the lingual side of each tooth 15 mm (proximal) and 25 mm (distal) from the occlusal surface, at a depth of 5 mm, which placed the tip close to the pulp chamber. Group-NC1 (n = 10) teeth were ground for 1 minute without coolant, group-NC2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes without coolant, and group-C2 (10) teeth were ground for 2 minutes with water for coolant.

Results—Mean temperature increase was 1.2°C at the distal thermocouple and 6.6°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC1 teeth, 4.1°C at the distal thermocouple and 24.3°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-NC2 teeth, and 0.8°C at the distal thermocouple and –0.1°C at the proximal thermocouple for group-C2 teeth.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In general, an increase of 5°C in human teeth is considered the maximum increase before there is permanent damage to tooth pulp. In group-NC2 teeth, temperature increased above this limit by several degrees, whereas in group-C2 teeth, there was little or no temperature increase. Our results suggest that major reduction of equine teeth by use of power instruments causes thermal changes that may cause irreversible pulp damage unless water cooling is used. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1128–1132)

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