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Elimination kinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride after intramammary administration in lactating dairy cows

Geof W. Smith DVM, PhD1, Ronette Gehring BVSc, MMedVet2, Jim E. Riviere DVM, PhD3, James L. Yeatts MS4, and Ronald E. Baynes DVM, PhD5
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  • 1 Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 2 Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 3 Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 4 Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.
  • | 5 Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank, Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606.

Abstract

Objective—To determine the elimination kinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in milk after intramammary administration in lactating dairy cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—5 lactating dairy cows.

Procedure—After collection of baseline milk samples, 300 mg (6 mL) of ceftiofur was infused into the left front and right rear mammary gland quarters of each cow. Approximately 12 hours later, an additional 300 mg of ceftiofur was administered into the same mammary gland quarters after milking. Milk samples were collected from each mammary gland quarter every 12 hours for 10 days. Concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites in each milk sample were determined to assess the rate of ceftiofur elimination.

Results—Although there were considerable variations among mammary gland quarters and individual cows, ceftiofur concentrations in milk from all treated mammary gland quarters were less than the tolerance (0.1 µg/mL) set by the FDA by 168 hours (7 days) after the last intramammary administration of ceftiofur. No drug concentrations were detected in milk samples beyond this period. Ceftiofur was not detected in any milk samples from nontreated mammary gland quarters throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ceftiofur administered by the intramammary route as an extralabel treatment for mastitis in dairy cows reaches concentrations in milk greater than the tolerance set by the FDA. Results indicated that milk from treated mammary gland quarters should be discarded for a minimum of 7 days after intramammary administration of ceftiofur. Elimination of ceftiofur may be correlated with milk production, and cows producing smaller volumes of milk may have prolonged withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1827–1830)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the elimination kinetics of ceftiofur hydrochloride in milk after intramammary administration in lactating dairy cows.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—5 lactating dairy cows.

Procedure—After collection of baseline milk samples, 300 mg (6 mL) of ceftiofur was infused into the left front and right rear mammary gland quarters of each cow. Approximately 12 hours later, an additional 300 mg of ceftiofur was administered into the same mammary gland quarters after milking. Milk samples were collected from each mammary gland quarter every 12 hours for 10 days. Concentrations of ceftiofur and its metabolites in each milk sample were determined to assess the rate of ceftiofur elimination.

Results—Although there were considerable variations among mammary gland quarters and individual cows, ceftiofur concentrations in milk from all treated mammary gland quarters were less than the tolerance (0.1 µg/mL) set by the FDA by 168 hours (7 days) after the last intramammary administration of ceftiofur. No drug concentrations were detected in milk samples beyond this period. Ceftiofur was not detected in any milk samples from nontreated mammary gland quarters throughout the study.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ceftiofur administered by the intramammary route as an extralabel treatment for mastitis in dairy cows reaches concentrations in milk greater than the tolerance set by the FDA. Results indicated that milk from treated mammary gland quarters should be discarded for a minimum of 7 days after intramammary administration of ceftiofur. Elimination of ceftiofur may be correlated with milk production, and cows producing smaller volumes of milk may have prolonged withdrawal times. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1827–1830)