Evaluation of an epidemic of sporotrichosis in cats: 347 cases (1998–2001)

Tânia M. P. SchubachServiço de Zoonoses, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Armando SchubachServiço de Zoonoses, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Thais OkamotoServiço de Zoonoses, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Fellowship of Programa de Bolsas de Iniciação Científica–Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa.

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Mônica B. L. BarrosServiço de Infectologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Fabiano Borges FigueiredoServiço de Zoonoses, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Tullia CuzziServiço de Patologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Paulo C. Fialho-MonteiroServiço de Micologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Rosani S. ReisServiço de Micologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Mauricio A. PerezServiço de Epidemiologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.
Departamento de Medicina Preventiva e Núcleo de Estudos de Saúde Coletiva, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowisky s/n o, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.

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Bodo WankeServiço de Micologia, Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas-Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Brasil 4365, 21045-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate characteristics of a large epidemic of sporotrichosis in cats.

Design-—Retrospective study.

Animals-—347 cats with naturally acquired infection with Sporothrix schenckii.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for data regarding clinical, mycologic, histopathologic, and routine hematologic and serum biochemical findings; assays for FIV-specific antibodies and FeLV antigen; antifungal treatment; and follow-up.

Results—Lesions varied from small papules to extensive zones of necrosis. Ten cats had no skin lesions, 114 had skin lesions at a single site, 86 had skin lesions in 2 sites, and 137 had skin lesions in 3 or more sites. Respiratory tract signs were observed in 154 cats and were the most frequent extracutaneous sign. Anemia, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia were the main blood abnormalities. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 28 cats, FeLV antigen was detected in 2 cats, and both were detected in 1 cat among 142 cats tested. During the study, 118 cats were lost to follow-up and 124 died. Of 266 cats that were treated, 68 were cured. Complete healing of the lesions was observed regardless of the presence of extracutaneous signs, general condition, treatment schedule, or coinfection with FIV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feline sporotrichosis was evident in subclinical to severe forms; however, cats can respond well to regular and prolonged antifungal treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1623–1629)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate characteristics of a large epidemic of sporotrichosis in cats.

Design-—Retrospective study.

Animals-—347 cats with naturally acquired infection with Sporothrix schenckii.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for data regarding clinical, mycologic, histopathologic, and routine hematologic and serum biochemical findings; assays for FIV-specific antibodies and FeLV antigen; antifungal treatment; and follow-up.

Results—Lesions varied from small papules to extensive zones of necrosis. Ten cats had no skin lesions, 114 had skin lesions at a single site, 86 had skin lesions in 2 sites, and 137 had skin lesions in 3 or more sites. Respiratory tract signs were observed in 154 cats and were the most frequent extracutaneous sign. Anemia, leukocytosis with neutrophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia were the main blood abnormalities. Antibodies against FIV were detected in 28 cats, FeLV antigen was detected in 2 cats, and both were detected in 1 cat among 142 cats tested. During the study, 118 cats were lost to follow-up and 124 died. Of 266 cats that were treated, 68 were cured. Complete healing of the lesions was observed regardless of the presence of extracutaneous signs, general condition, treatment schedule, or coinfection with FIV.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Feline sporotrichosis was evident in subclinical to severe forms; however, cats can respond well to regular and prolonged antifungal treatment. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;224:1623–1629)