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Results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery: 265 cases (1997–1999)

Eric TroncyFaculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Stéphane JunotEcole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat–BP 83, F-69280 Marcy-L'Etoile, France.

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Stéphanie KeroackFaculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint- Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Véronique SammutFaculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint- Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Philippe PibarotFaculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint- Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Jean-Pierre GenevoisEcole Nationale Vétérinaire de Lyon, 1 avenue Bourgelat–BP 83, F-69280 Marcy-L'Etoile, France.

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Sophie CuvelliezFaculté de Médecine Vétérinaire, Université de Montréal, Saint- Hyacinthe, QC, Canada J2S 7C6.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of adverse effects associated with epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery and evaluate effects of epidural administration of morphine on postoperative pain severity.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—242 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedure—Morphine with or without bupivacaine was administered prior to surgery with a Tuohy needle, spinal needle, or epidural catheter. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine were compared with results of systemic administration of oxymorphone and ketoprofen.

Results—The delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower in animals given morphine and bupivacaine than in animals given morphine alone. Analgesia was of significantly longer duration in dogs given morphine and bupivacaine than in dogs given morphine alone. During anesthesia, mild respiratory and cardiovascular depression was reported. Seven dogs and 2 cats had urine retention, and 2 dogs developed pruritus. Six dogs vomited when a second dose of morphine was given epidurally the day after surgery. Eight of 72 dogs had delayed hair growth. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, the delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower and the duration of analgesia was significantly longer when morphine with or without bupivacaine was given epidurally than when oxymorphone and ketoprofen were given.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine is a safe and effective method of inducing long-lasting analgesia in dogs and cats and is superior to standard management of postoperative pain with repeated injection of oxymorphone and ketoprofen. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:666–672)

Abstract

Objective—To determine prevalence of adverse effects associated with epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine in dogs and cats undergoing surgery and evaluate effects of epidural administration of morphine on postoperative pain severity.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—242 dogs and 23 cats.

Procedure—Morphine with or without bupivacaine was administered prior to surgery with a Tuohy needle, spinal needle, or epidural catheter. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, results of preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine were compared with results of systemic administration of oxymorphone and ketoprofen.

Results—The delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower in animals given morphine and bupivacaine than in animals given morphine alone. Analgesia was of significantly longer duration in dogs given morphine and bupivacaine than in dogs given morphine alone. During anesthesia, mild respiratory and cardiovascular depression was reported. Seven dogs and 2 cats had urine retention, and 2 dogs developed pruritus. Six dogs vomited when a second dose of morphine was given epidurally the day after surgery. Eight of 72 dogs had delayed hair growth. In 18 dogs that underwent surgery twice, the delivered fraction of isoflurane was significantly lower and the duration of analgesia was significantly longer when morphine with or without bupivacaine was given epidurally than when oxymorphone and ketoprofen were given.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that preemptive epidural administration of morphine with or without bupivacaine is a safe and effective method of inducing long-lasting analgesia in dogs and cats and is superior to standard management of postoperative pain with repeated injection of oxymorphone and ketoprofen. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:666–672)