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Comparison of a sidestream capnograph and a mainstream capnograph in mechanically ventilated dogs

Francisco J. Teixeira Neto MED VET, MSc1, Adriano B. Carregaro MED VET, MSc2, Rodrigo Mannarino MED VET, MSc3, Mariângela L. Cruz MED VET, MSc4, and Stelio P. L. Luna MED VET, PhD5
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.
  • | 3 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.
  • | 5 Department of Veterinary Surgery and Anesthesiology, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, 18618-000, Brazil.

Abstract

Objective—To compare the ability of a sidestream capnograph and a mainstream capnograph to measure end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) and provide accurate estimates of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated dogs.

Design—Randomized, double Latin square.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced and neuromuscular blockade achieved by IV administration of pancuronium bromide. Mechanical ventilation was used to induce conditions of standard ventilation, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation. While tidal volume was held constant, changes in minute volume ventilation and PaCO2 were made by changing the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed and ETCO2 measurements were obtained by use of either a mainstream or a sidestream capnographic analyzer.

Results—A linear regression model and bias analysis were used to compare PaCO2 and ETCO2 measurements; ETCO2 measurements obtained by both capnographs correlated well with PaCO2. Compared with PaCO2, mainstream ETCO2 values differed by 3.15 ± 4.89 mm Hg (mean bias ± SD), whereas the bias observed with the sidestream ETCO2 system was significantly higher (5.65 ± 5.57 mm Hg). Regardless of the device used to measure ETCO2, bias increased as PaCO2 exceeded 60 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the mainstream capnograph was slightly more accurate, both methods of ETCO2 measurement correlated well with PaCO2 and reflected changes in the ventilatory status. However, ETCO2 values > 45 mm Hg may inaccurately reflect the severity of hypoventilation as PaCO2 may be underestimated during conditions of hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 60 mm Hg). (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1582–1585)

Abstract

Objective—To compare the ability of a sidestream capnograph and a mainstream capnograph to measure end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) and provide accurate estimates of PaCO2 in mechanically ventilated dogs.

Design—Randomized, double Latin square.

Animals—6 healthy adult dogs.

Procedure—Anesthesia was induced and neuromuscular blockade achieved by IV administration of pancuronium bromide. Mechanical ventilation was used to induce conditions of standard ventilation, hyperventilation, and hypoventilation. While tidal volume was held constant, changes in minute volume ventilation and PaCO2 were made by changing the respiratory rate. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed and ETCO2 measurements were obtained by use of either a mainstream or a sidestream capnographic analyzer.

Results—A linear regression model and bias analysis were used to compare PaCO2 and ETCO2 measurements; ETCO2 measurements obtained by both capnographs correlated well with PaCO2. Compared with PaCO2, mainstream ETCO2 values differed by 3.15 ± 4.89 mm Hg (mean bias ± SD), whereas the bias observed with the sidestream ETCO2 system was significantly higher (5.65 ± 5.57 mm Hg). Regardless of the device used to measure ETCO2, bias increased as PaCO2 exceeded 60 mm Hg.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although the mainstream capnograph was slightly more accurate, both methods of ETCO2 measurement correlated well with PaCO2 and reflected changes in the ventilatory status. However, ETCO2 values > 45 mm Hg may inaccurately reflect the severity of hypoventilation as PaCO2 may be underestimated during conditions of hypercapnia (PaCO2 > 60 mm Hg). (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1582–1585)