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Use of keyhole lung biopsy for diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases in dogs and cats: 13 cases (1998–2001)

Carol R. Norris DVM, DACVIM1, Stephen M. Griffey DVM, PhD2, and Peter Walsh DVM3
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  • 1 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.
  • | 2 Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.
  • | 3 Department of Surgery and Radiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616-8734.

Abstract

Objective—To characterize interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and evaluate use of keyhole lung biopsy for diagnosis of ILDs in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing keyhole lung biopsy to confirm ILDs were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, results of thoracic radiography and other respiratory diagnostic tests, postoperative complications, and patient outcome were analyzed.

Results—Clinical respiratory signs included cough, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, and hemoptysis. Thoracic radiographic abnormalities included interstitial, alveolar, and bronchointerstitial patterns and multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. Lung biopsy and histologic examination revealed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, or unclassified lesions. Outcome after biopsy included no response to treatment, euthanasia, partial or complete remission while receiving medication, and cure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recognition and classification of ILDs in dogs and cats are likely to be important in guiding appropriate treatment and providing accurate prognostic information. Ancillary respiratory diagnostic tests are beneficial in ruling out infectious and neoplastic disorders that may mimic ILDs; however, their present use in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. Results suggest that keyhole lung biopsy is an effective means for obtaining a specimen for histologic diagnosis in dogs and cats with ILDs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1453–1459)

Abstract

Objective—To characterize interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and evaluate use of keyhole lung biopsy for diagnosis of ILDs in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—11 dogs and 2 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats undergoing keyhole lung biopsy to confirm ILDs were reviewed. Signalment, clinical signs, results of thoracic radiography and other respiratory diagnostic tests, postoperative complications, and patient outcome were analyzed.

Results—Clinical respiratory signs included cough, tachypnea, exercise intolerance, and hemoptysis. Thoracic radiographic abnormalities included interstitial, alveolar, and bronchointerstitial patterns and multiple discrete pulmonary nodules. Lung biopsy and histologic examination revealed interstitial pulmonary fibrosis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, or unclassified lesions. Outcome after biopsy included no response to treatment, euthanasia, partial or complete remission while receiving medication, and cure.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Recognition and classification of ILDs in dogs and cats are likely to be important in guiding appropriate treatment and providing accurate prognostic information. Ancillary respiratory diagnostic tests are beneficial in ruling out infectious and neoplastic disorders that may mimic ILDs; however, their present use in the diagnosis of ILDs is limited. Results suggest that keyhole lung biopsy is an effective means for obtaining a specimen for histologic diagnosis in dogs and cats with ILDs. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:1453–1459)