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Use of a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution in cats: 72 cases (1998–2000)

Gillian R. GibsonDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Mary Beth CallanDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Victoria HoffmanDepartment of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Urs GigerDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features and outcome associated with use of a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC) solution in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—72 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats that received an HBOC solution were reviewed.

Results—The most common clinical signs and physical examination findings prior to infusion of the HBOC solution were associated with anemia; vomiting, neurologic signs, and respiratory abnormalities were also detected. The HBOC solution was given as a supportive measure in treatment of anemia in 70 cats, most often because compatible blood was not readily available. There were 80 separate HBOC solution infusion events (mean dose, 14.6 ml/kg [6.6 mg/lb]; mean rate of infusion, 4.8 ml/kg [2.2 ml/lb] per hour). Improvements in 37 of 43 of the more closely monitored cats included increased rectal temperature, blood hemoglobin concentration, blood pressure, appetite, and activity. Adverse events in 44 cats included pulmonary edema (n = 8), pleural effusion (21), mucous membrane discoloration (21), pigmenturia (11), vomiting (4), and neurologic abnormalities (4). Twenty-three cats were discharged from the hospital, and 49 cats died or were euthanatized. Necropsy examination of 23 cats did not reveal evidence of renal or hepatic toxicosis associated with HBOC administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although administration of an HBOC solution may provide temporary support to anemic cats, the development of pulmonary edema or pleural effusion potentially associated with rapid infusion rate and large volume of infusion of the HBOC solution should be investigated further before use of the solution can be recommended in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:96–102)

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical features and outcome associated with use of a hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying (HBOC) solution in cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—72 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of cats that received an HBOC solution were reviewed.

Results—The most common clinical signs and physical examination findings prior to infusion of the HBOC solution were associated with anemia; vomiting, neurologic signs, and respiratory abnormalities were also detected. The HBOC solution was given as a supportive measure in treatment of anemia in 70 cats, most often because compatible blood was not readily available. There were 80 separate HBOC solution infusion events (mean dose, 14.6 ml/kg [6.6 mg/lb]; mean rate of infusion, 4.8 ml/kg [2.2 ml/lb] per hour). Improvements in 37 of 43 of the more closely monitored cats included increased rectal temperature, blood hemoglobin concentration, blood pressure, appetite, and activity. Adverse events in 44 cats included pulmonary edema (n = 8), pleural effusion (21), mucous membrane discoloration (21), pigmenturia (11), vomiting (4), and neurologic abnormalities (4). Twenty-three cats were discharged from the hospital, and 49 cats died or were euthanatized. Necropsy examination of 23 cats did not reveal evidence of renal or hepatic toxicosis associated with HBOC administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although administration of an HBOC solution may provide temporary support to anemic cats, the development of pulmonary edema or pleural effusion potentially associated with rapid infusion rate and large volume of infusion of the HBOC solution should be investigated further before use of the solution can be recommended in cats. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;221:96–102)