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Comparative efficacy of an injectable vaccine and an intranasal vaccine in stimulating Bordetella bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses in seropositive dogs

John A. Ellis DVM, PhD, DACVP, DACVM1, G. Steven Krakowka DVM, PhD, DACVP2, Arthur D. Dayton PhD3, and Carrie Konoby BS4
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  • 1 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.
  • | 2 Department of Veterinary Biosciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
  • | 3 Pfizer Animal Health, 1 Pfizer Way, Lee's Summit, MO 64081-2998.
  • | 4 Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada S7N 5B4.

Abstract

Objective—To compare antibody responses to intranasal and SC Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in seropositive dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—40 young adult Beagles vaccinated against B bronchiseptica.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (intranasal vaccine, SC vaccine, intranasal and SC vaccines, no vaccine) and vaccinated on day 0. Serum and salivary B bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses were measured on days 0 through 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28.

Results—Dogs that were vaccinated with the SC vaccine, alone or in combination with the intranasal vaccine, had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgG beginning on day 5 and persisting through day 28. Dogs that were vaccinated with the intranasal vaccine alone had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica- reactive IgG beginning on day 10 and persisting through day 28, but serum IgG concentration in these dogs was significantly less than concentration in dogs that received the SC vaccine. Neither vaccine had a demonstrable effect on salivary concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgA or IgG. On day 10, all vaccinated groups had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did unvaccinated control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SC B bronchiseptica vaccine may be used to stimulate antibody responses in seropositive dogs. There was no apparent benefit to administering these vaccines simultaneously. Intranasal vaccines may not be effective for booster vaccination of dogs previously exposed to or immunized against B bronchiseptica. Dogs should be vaccinated at least 5 days prior to exposure to B bronchiseptica. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:43–48)

Abstract

Objective—To compare antibody responses to intranasal and SC Bordetella bronchiseptica vaccines in seropositive dogs.

Design—Randomized controlled study.

Animals—40 young adult Beagles vaccinated against B bronchiseptica.

Procedure—Dogs were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (intranasal vaccine, SC vaccine, intranasal and SC vaccines, no vaccine) and vaccinated on day 0. Serum and salivary B bronchiseptica-reactive antibody responses were measured on days 0 through 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28.

Results—Dogs that were vaccinated with the SC vaccine, alone or in combination with the intranasal vaccine, had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgG beginning on day 5 and persisting through day 28. Dogs that were vaccinated with the intranasal vaccine alone had a significant increase in serum concentration of B bronchiseptica- reactive IgG beginning on day 10 and persisting through day 28, but serum IgG concentration in these dogs was significantly less than concentration in dogs that received the SC vaccine. Neither vaccine had a demonstrable effect on salivary concentrations of B bronchiseptica-reactive IgA or IgG. On day 10, all vaccinated groups had significantly higher serum IgA concentrations than did unvaccinated control dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that the SC B bronchiseptica vaccine may be used to stimulate antibody responses in seropositive dogs. There was no apparent benefit to administering these vaccines simultaneously. Intranasal vaccines may not be effective for booster vaccination of dogs previously exposed to or immunized against B bronchiseptica. Dogs should be vaccinated at least 5 days prior to exposure to B bronchiseptica. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:43–48)