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Evaluation of colposuspension for treatment of incontinence in spayed female dogs

Clarence RawlingsDepartments of Small Animal Medicine., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.
Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.

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Jeanne A. BarsantiDepartments of Small Animal Medicine., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.
Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.

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Mary B. MahaffeyDepartments of Anatomy and Radiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.

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Shannon BementDepartments of Small Animal Medicine., College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602- 7390.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension in spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or urodynamic measurements associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained, and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample, vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry, and leak point pressure test were performed. Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative tests were repeated 2 months after surgery. Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery.

Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery, and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2 months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP), compared with preoperative measurements, and their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension. Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%) owners being pleased with their decision to have surgery performed. The only predictors of complete urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more caudal position of the external urethral opening in relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and a longer overall urethral length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension alone will result in complete urinary control in few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve urinary control sufficiently that owners will be pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the LPP test correlates with improved urinary control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)

Abstract

Objective—To determine the long-term effects of colposuspension in spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence and identify preoperative anatomic or urodynamic measurements associated with a successful outcome.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—23 client-owned spayed female dogs with urinary incontinence.

Procedure—Prior to surgery, a history was obtained, and a physical examination, CBC, serum biochemical analyses, urinalysis, bacterial culture of a urine sample, vaginourethrocystography, urethral pressure profilometry, and leak point pressure test were performed. Colposuspension was performed, and preoperative tests were repeated 2 months after surgery. Clients were interviewed 2 weeks, 1 month, and 1 year after surgery.

Results—22 dogs were followed up for 1 year. Twelve had complete urinary control 2 months after surgery, and 3 had complete urinary control 1 year after surgery. Dogs with normal urinary control at 2 months had an increased leak point pressure (LPP), compared with preoperative measurements, and their LPP was the same as normal dogs. Eight dogs had complete urinary control, and 9 were considered greatly improved 1 year after surgery when medical treatment was added to the effect of colposuspension. Client satisfaction was high, with 19 of 22 (86%) owners being pleased with their decision to have surgery performed. The only predictors of complete urinary control 2 months after surgery were a more caudal position of the external urethral opening in relation to the pubis on preoperative radiographs and a longer overall urethral length.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Colposuspension alone will result in complete urinary control in few dogs with urinary incontinence but may improve urinary control sufficiently that owners will be pleased. Preoperative vaginourethrocystography may be helpful in predicting response to surgery, and the LPP test correlates with improved urinary control. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:770–775)