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Use of carboplatin for treatment of dogs with malignant melanoma: 27 cases (1989–2000)

Kenneth M. RassnickHarrington Oncology Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
Present address is Comparative Cancer Program, Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853.

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David M. RuslanderHarrington Oncology Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

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Susan M. CotterHarrington Oncology Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

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Renee Al-SarrafVeterinary Referral Centre, 48 Notch Rd, Little Falls, NJ 07424.

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David S. BruyetteDepartment of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506.
Present address is VCA West Los Angeles Animal Hospital, 1818 S Sepulveda Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90025.

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Rance M. GamblinAkron Veterinary Referral and Emergency Center, PO Box 4369, 1321 Centerview Cir, Akron, OH 44321.
Present address is Metropolitan Veterinary Hospital, 1053 S Cleveland-Massillon Rd, Akron, OH 44321.

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Karelle A. MeleoVeterinary Oncology Services, 22226 Highway 99, Edmonds, WA 98020.

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Antony S. MooreHarrington Oncology Program, School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.

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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously occurring measurable malignant melanomas.

Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000 were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area. Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity were determined.

Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in 25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%. One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden). Median duration of partial response was 165 days. Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb] of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27 dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9 kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin had activity against macroscopic spontaneously occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1444–1448)

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate response rate and duration of malignant melanomas in dogs treated with carboplatin.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—27 client-owned dogs with spontaneously occurring measurable malignant melanomas.

Procedure—Records of dogs with melanomas treated with carboplatin from October 1989 to June 2000 were reviewed. Carboplatin was administered IV at doses of 300 or 350 mg/m2 of body surface area. Response to treatment and evidence of drug toxicity were determined.

Result—Response to treatment could be evaluated in 25 dogs. Of those, overall response rate was 28%. One dog had a complete response, 6 (24%) dogs had a partial response (> 50% reduction in tumor burden). Median duration of partial response was 165 days. Eighteen dogs had stable disease (n = 9; 36%) or progressive disease (9; 36%). Response to treatment was significantly associated with carboplatin dose on a milligram per kilogram basis (15.1 mg/kg [6.9 mg/lb] of body weight vs 12.6 mg/kg [5.7 mg/lb]). Evidence of gastrointestinal toxicosis could be assessed in 27 dogs. Mean body weight of 5 dogs that developed gastrointestinal toxicosis was significantly less than that of 22 dogs without gastrointestinal toxicosis (9.9 kg [21.8 lb] vs 19.3 kg [42.5 lb]).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Carboplatin had activity against macroscopic spontaneously occurring malignant melanomas in dogs and should be considered as an adjunctive treatment for microscopic local or metastatic tumors. Gastrointestinal toxicosis was associated with body weight. Because small dogs are more likely to have adverse gastrointestinal effects, gastrointestinal protectants should be considered for these patients. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1444–1448)