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Effects of hydromorphone or oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, on preanesthetic sedation, physiologic values, and histamine release in dogs

Lesley J. Smith DVM, DACVA1, Jeff K-A Yu BS2, Dale E. Bjorling DVM, MS, DACVS3, and Kenneth Waller BS4
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  • 1 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 2 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 3 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.
  • | 4 Department of Surgical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706.

Abstract

Objective—To compare hydromorphone with oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, for preanesthetic sedation in dogs and assess changes in plasma concentration of histamine after drug administration.

Design—Randomized clinical study.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated IM with hydromorphone (group H), oxymorphone (group O), hydromorphone with acepromazine (group H/A), or oxymorphone with acepromazine (group O/A). Sedation score, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline immediately after drug administration (T0) and every 5 minutes for 25 minutes (T25). Plasma histamine concentration was measured at baseline and T25.

Results—Sedation was similar between groups H and O at all times. Sedation was significantly greater for groups H/A and O/A from T10 to T25, compared with other groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at T25 in group H/A, compared with group H, and in group O/A, compared with group O. Prevalence of panting at T25 was 50% for groups H and O, compared with 20% for group H/A and 30% for group O/A. By T25, heart rate was significantly lower in all groups. Oxygen saturation was unaffected by treatment. Mean ± SD plasma histamine concentration was 1.72 ± 2.69 ng/ml at baseline and 1.13 ± 1.18 ng/ml at T25. There was no significant change in plasma histamine concentration in any group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone is comparable to oxymorphone for preanesthetic sedation in dogs. Sedation is enhanced by acepromazine. Neither hydromorphone nor oxymorphone caused an increase in plasma histamine concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1101–1105)

Abstract

Objective—To compare hydromorphone with oxymorphone, with or without acepromazine, for preanesthetic sedation in dogs and assess changes in plasma concentration of histamine after drug administration.

Design—Randomized clinical study.

Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed dogs.

Procedure—Dogs were treated IM with hydromorphone (group H), oxymorphone (group O), hydromorphone with acepromazine (group H/A), or oxymorphone with acepromazine (group O/A). Sedation score, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were recorded at baseline immediately after drug administration (T0) and every 5 minutes for 25 minutes (T25). Plasma histamine concentration was measured at baseline and T25.

Results—Sedation was similar between groups H and O at all times. Sedation was significantly greater for groups H/A and O/A from T10 to T25, compared with other groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly reduced at T25 in group H/A, compared with group H, and in group O/A, compared with group O. Prevalence of panting at T25 was 50% for groups H and O, compared with 20% for group H/A and 30% for group O/A. By T25, heart rate was significantly lower in all groups. Oxygen saturation was unaffected by treatment. Mean ± SD plasma histamine concentration was 1.72 ± 2.69 ng/ml at baseline and 1.13 ± 1.18 ng/ml at T25. There was no significant change in plasma histamine concentration in any group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Hydromorphone is comparable to oxymorphone for preanesthetic sedation in dogs. Sedation is enhanced by acepromazine. Neither hydromorphone nor oxymorphone caused an increase in plasma histamine concentration. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:1101–1105)