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Radiographic patterns of periodontitis in cats: 147 cases (1998–1999)

Milinda J. LommerDepartment of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.
Present address is Aggie Animal Dental Service, 2343 Fillmore St, San Francisco, CA 94115.

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Frank J. M. VerstraeteDepartment of Surgical and Radiological Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth survey radiographs of cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—147 cats.

Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots, missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis, and apical resorption.

Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis, 100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%) had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12 (8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly more likely than the general population to have normal alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less likely than the general population to have moderate or severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or ORL than mixed-breed cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal bone loss is the most common radiographic pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:230—234)

Abstract

Objective—To determine patterns of alveolar bone loss (periodontitis) and other lesions evident on fullmouth survey radiographs of cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—147 cats.

Procedure—Full-mouth radiographs were evaluated for evidence and severity of alveolar bone loss, odontoclastic resorption lesions (ORL), retained roots, missing teeth, signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis, and apical resorption.

Results—106 (72%) cats had some degree of periodontitis, 100 (68%) were missing teeth, 98 (67%) had ORL, 78 (53%) had expansion of the buccal alveolar bone at 1 or more canine teeth, 75 (51%) had retained roots, 48 (33%) had apical resorption, and 12 (8%) had signs of endodontic disease secondary to periodontitis. Cats < 4 years old were not significantly more likely than the general population to have normal alveolar bone height. Prevalence of ORL increased with age, but cats ≥ 13 years old were less likely than the general population to have moderate or severe generalized periodontitis. Purebred cats were not significantly more likely to have periodontitis or ORL than mixed-breed cats.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that periodontitis is common in cats and that horizontal bone loss is the most common radiographic pattern of alveolar bone loss. Purebred cats were not more likely than mixed-breed cats to have ORL or periodontitis, but when they did have periodontitis, it was more likely to be moderate to severe. Cats with ORL were less likely than cats without ORL to have normal alveolar bone height and more likely to have severe focal vertical bone loss. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:230—234)