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Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia associated with protein-losing enteropathy in Yorkshire Terriers: five cases (1992–1998)

Susan E. KimmelDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Lori S. WaddellDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Kathryn E. MichelDepartment of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

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Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and laboratory findings associated with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia in Yorkshire Terriers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 purebred or crossbred Yorkshire Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Results—Of 8 dogs with these signs, 5 had Yorkshire Terrier breeding. Common findings were diarrhea, abdominal effusion, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypocalcemia (ionized calcium), hypomagnesemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk for development of protein-losing enteropathy with hypomagnesemia and decreased ionized calcium concentration. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia may have a related pathogenesis involving intestinal loss, malabsorption, and abnormalities of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Serum electrolyte replacement may be required to avoid neurologic and metabolic problems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 703–706)

Abstract

Objective—To determine clinical and laboratory findings associated with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia in Yorkshire Terriers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—5 purebred or crossbred Yorkshire Terriers with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed for dogs with protein-losing enteropathy, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia.

Results—Of 8 dogs with these signs, 5 had Yorkshire Terrier breeding. Common findings were diarrhea, abdominal effusion, leukocytosis, neutrophilia, hypocalcemia (ionized calcium), hypomagnesemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypocholesterolemia, and increased serum activity of aspartate aminotransferase.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Yorkshire Terriers are at increased risk for development of protein-losing enteropathy with hypomagnesemia and decreased ionized calcium concentration. Hypomagnesemia and hypocalcemia may have a related pathogenesis involving intestinal loss, malabsorption, and abnormalities of vitamin D and parathyroid hormone metabolism. Serum electrolyte replacement may be required to avoid neurologic and metabolic problems. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217: 703–706)